CD4+CD28- T cells are oligoclonal lymphocytes rarely found in healthy subjects, but are present in high frequencies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Contrary to paradigm, they are functionally active and produce interferon gamma and cytolytic proteins, are cytotoxic in vessels and may contribute to tissue damage. The size of the peripheral blood CD4+CD28- T cell compartments was determined in 20 healthy individuals, 20 patients after renal transplantation with stable graft function, and 20 with chronic graft rejection by two-color FACS analysis. In patients with stable graft function, the median frequency of CD4+CD28- T cells was 3.1% and was significantly higher in comparison to the control group (1.4%) (P <.01). The highest subset CD4+CD28- cells was detected in patients with chronic graft rejection (10.65%). The amount of CD4+CD28- cells was significantly higher in this group in comparison to patients with stable graft function (P <.01). The evaluated number of CD4+CD28- cells in patients after renal transplantation, especially in graft recipients with chronic graft rejection, suggests a role of these cells in chronic graft destruction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells form a rare subset in human peripheral blood. The presence of CD4(+)CD28(-) cells has been associated with chronic viral infections, but how these particular cells are generated is unknown. In this study, we show that in primary CMV infections, CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells emerge just after cessation of the viral load, indicating that infection with CMV triggers the formation of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells. In line with this, we found these cells only in CMV-infected persons. CD4(+)CD28(-) cells had an Ag-primed phenotype and expressed the cytolytic molecules granzyme B and perforin. Importantly, CD4(+)CD28(-) cells were to a large extent CMV-specific because proliferation was only induced by CMV-Ag, but not by recall Ags such as purified protein derivative or tetanus toxoid. CD4(+)CD28(-) cells only produced IFN-gamma after stimulation with CMV-Ag, whereas CD4(+)CD28(+) cells also produced IFN-gamma in response to varicella-zoster virus and purified protein derivative. Thus, CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells emerge as a consequence of CMV infection.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2004; 173(3):1834-41. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.173.3.1834 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xenotransplantation using porcine organs may resolve a chronic shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantation if significant immunological barriers can be overcome. To determine the potential role of T lymphocytes in Xenograft (Xg) rejection, we transplanted transgenic hCD46 porcine hearts heterotopically into baboon recipients.
Recipients were treated to deplete anti-Gal antibody with a non-antigenic alpha-Gal polyethylene glycol polymer (TPC) (n = 2), TPC plus rituximab (anti-CD20) (n = 1) or were untreated (n = 1). None of the recipients received T-cell immunosuppression.
All Xgs failed within 7 days and showed evidence of a mixed humoral and cellular rejection process. Cellular infiltration consisting primarily of CD4+ T cells and few CD8+ T cells. Proliferation and cytotoxicity assays showed sensitization of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that reacted with porcine IFN-gamma (pIFN-gamma)-stimulated porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC). The CD4+ lymphocytes displayed greater cytotoxicity than CD8+ cells. An increased frequency of PAEC-specific interleukin (IL) 2 and IFN-gamma-secreting T cells was observed, suggesting a Th1 cytokine bias. An increase in the percentage of circulating CD4+CD28- cells was observed at the time of rejection and over 50% of the CD4+ cells recovered from residual pig tissue at necropsy lacked CD28 expression.
These findings show that lymphocytes are efficiently stimulated by PAEC antigens and can mediate direct tissue destruction. These studies (1) provide an insight into the potential of cellular-mediated cardiac Xg rejection, (2) show for the first time the induction of cytotoxic pig-specific CD4+CD28- lymphocytes and (3) provide a rational basis for determining different modes of immunosuppression to treat Xg rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Natural killer T cells are a unique lymphocyte subset that can recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d and secrete copious amounts of pro-atherogenic cytokines such as interferon-gamma. We have previously shown that natural killer T cells accelerate atherosclerosis in mice and macrophages incubated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins induce natural killer T cells to produce interferon-gamma. Thus, whether the prevalence of natural killer T cells in peripheral blood is altered in patients with angina pectoris and its correlation with coronary risk factors was determined.
Cell profiling was performed using flow cytometry in patients with stable angina, unstable angina (Braunwald IIIB), and healthy controls. Natural killer T cells in peripheral blood were identified by the expression of natural killer T specific invariant T cell receptor alpha-chain (Valpha24) and T cell receptor beta-chain (Vbeta11).
Prevalence of natural killer T (Valpha24-Vbeta11 double positive) cells was significantly decreased in patients with unstable angina and stable angina compared with that in controls. No significant differences were observed in the prevalence between unstable and stable angina. Reduction of natural killer T cells was independently associated with the presence of angina.
Lower prevalence of circulating natural killer T cells is related to the presence of coronary artery disease. As T cell receptor down-regulation or apoptosis after natural killer T cell activation and subsequent interferon-gamma release may contribute to atherogenesis, natural killer T cells can become a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic vascular diseases.
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