The effect of hospital volume of pediatric appendectomies on the misdiagnosis of appendicitis in children
ABSTRACT Although appendicitis is a common pediatric surgical condition, it is often misdiagnosed. Because higher hospital volume has been associated with improved outcome for many surgical procedures, the current study investigates whether hospital volume of pediatric appendectomies is associated with misdiagnosis of appendicitis in children.
The Kids' Inpatient Database is a national sample of pediatric discharges from 2521 hospitals in 22 states in 1997. In this study, misdiagnosis was defined as a patient with a principal International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure code for nonincidental appendectomy without a corresponding diagnosis code for appendicitis. Hospitals were stratified into 5 groups based on the number of nonincidental appendectomies performed on children in 1997: lowest (<1 per month), low (>or=1 per month but <1 per week), medium (1-2 per week), high (2-3 per week), and highest (>or=3 per week). Using generalized estimating equations to control for clustering within hospitals, we developed a logistic regression model of the effect of hospital volume on misdiagnosis while adjusting for patient age, gender, race, and insurance status.
In the database, 37,109 nonincidental appendectomies were performed on children 1 to 18 years old in 1997. Of those, 3103 (8.4%) were misdiagnosed. Of all appendectomies, 24,655 (66.4%) were performed at lowest- or low-volume hospitals. After adjusting for patient characteristics, lowest- (odds ratio [OR]: 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-2.2) and low- (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) volume hospitals had a significantly increased likelihood of misdiagnosis compared with highest-volume hospitals. Misdiagnosis at medium- (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.2) and high- (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 0.9-2.2) volume hospitals was similar to misdiagnosis at lower-volume hospitals, although not statistically different from highest-volume hospitals.
Almost two thirds of pediatric appendectomies are performed at hospitals performing <1 pediatric appendectomy per week. Lower hospital volume of pediatric appendectomies is associated with a significantly increased likelihood of misdiagnosis of appendicitis in children.
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ABSTRACT: To compare trends in pediatric emergency appendectomy and adverse surgical outcomes between district general hospitals (DGHs) and specialist pediatric centers (SPCs). In the past decades in England, a significant reduction in the number of children operated by adult general surgeons has raised concerns about their surgical outcomes compared with specialist pediatric surgeons. Using Hospital Episode Statistics, we analyzed patient-level data between April 2001 and March 2012. Main inclusion criteria were children younger than 16 years admitted to NHS-England hospitals for an emergency appendectomy. Main outcomes were annual age-sex adjusted appendectomy rates and postoperative risk of readmission, complication, and reintervention. A total of 83,679 emergency pediatric appendectomies were performed in 21 SPCs and 183 DGHs in England. SPCs performed only 18% of these operations (15,002). Annual age-sex standardized appendectomy rates fell from 87 to 68 per 100,000 population at an estimated 2% (rate ratio, 0.98) fall per annum. This was accompanied by a national annual increased risk of negative appendectomy, complication, reintervention, and readmission (adjusted odds ratio: 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, and 1.06, respectively). Children who had appendectomies in DGHs had 28% more negative appendectomies, 11% more complications, and 11% more readmissions than those in SPCs. Postoperative length of stay was double in SPCs compared with DGHs (median, 4 vs 2 days). Major reductions in the number of pediatric emergency appendectomies in England over the past decade were associated with an overall increase in adverse surgical outcomes. Children operated in DGHs have more reinterventions, complications, and negative appendectomy rates than those operated in SPCs.Annals of Surgery 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001099 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of hospital volume on outcomes of laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis. In total, 30,525 patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis were referred to 825 hospitals in Japan from 2010 to 2012. We compared appendectomy-related complications, length of stay (LOS), and medical costs in relation to hospital volume. For this study period, hospitals were categorized as low-volume hospitals (LVHs, <50 cases), medium-volume hospitals (MVHs, 50-100 cases), or high-volume hospitals (HVHs, >100 cases). Significant differences in appendectomy-related complications were observed among the LVHs, MVHs, and HVHs (6.9, 7.2, and 6.0 %, respectively; p = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that HVHs were associated with a lower relative risk of appendectomy-related complications than were LVHs and MVHs (odds ratio [OR], 0.84; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.95; p = 0.006). Multiple linear regression showed that HVHs were associated with shorter LOS and lower medical costs than were LVHs and MVHs. The unstandardized coefficient for LOS was -0.92 days (95 % CI, -1.07 to -0.78; p < 0.001), whereas that for medical costs was - $167.4 (95 % CI, -256.2 to -78.6; p < 0.001). Hospital volume was significantly associated with laparoscopic appendectomy outcomes.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11605-015-2746-y · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. This study aimed to evaluate Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), diagnostic delay, and factors responsible for possible late diagnosis in children <4 years compared with older children who were operated on for suspected appendicitis. Method. 122 children, between 1 and 14 years, operated on with appendectomy for suspected appendicitis, were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort was divided into two age groups: ≥4 years () and <4 years (). Results. The mean PAS was lower among the younger compared with the older patients (5.3 and 6.6, resp.; ), despite the fact that younger children had more severe appendicitis (75.0% and 33.3%, resp.; ). PAS had low sensitivity in both groups, with a significantly lower sensitivity among the younger patients. Parent and doctor delay were confirmed in children <4 years of age with appendicitis. PAS did not aid in patients with doctor delay. Parameters in patient history, symptoms, and abdominal examination were more diffuse in younger children. Conclusion. PAS should be used with caution when examining children younger than 4 years of age. Diffuse symptoms in younger children with acute appendicitis lead to delay and to later diagnosis and more complicated appendicitis.12/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/438076