The Child Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Teacher Telephone Interview (CHATTI): Reliability and validity
ABSTRACT The ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for hyperkinetic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require symptoms or impairment in two or more settings. Thus, information on children's symptoms in school is usually required. This paper presents the Child ADHD Teacher Telephone Interview (CHATTI), an instrument aimed at systematically obtaining this information.
To examine the stability, test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the CHATTI for children referred with a suspected diagnosis of ADHD.
Data were obtained from 79 teachers, of whom 36 were interviewed on two occasions.
Overall, the CHATTI shows good stability, test-retest reliability and criterion validity for symptom scores. Test-retest reliability for some individual items was low. Reliability for the operationalised criteria of 'pervasiveness' (i.e. symptoms at school and home) and 'school impairment' was excellent (kappa=1).
The CHATTI appears to be a promising tool for assessing ADHD symptoms in a school setting and could be useful in clinical as well as research settings.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: A naturalistic, prospective study of the influence of genetic variation on dose prescribed, clinical response, and side effects related to stimulant medication in 77 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was undertaken. The influence of genetic variation of the CES1 gene coding for carboxylesterase 1A1 (CES1A1), the major enzyme responsible for the first-pass, stereoselective metabolism of methylphenidate, was investigated. Methods: Parent- and teacher-rated behavioral questionnaires were collected at baseline when the children were medication naïve, and again at 6 weeks while they were on medication. Medication dose, prescribed at the discretion of the treating clinician, and side effects, were recorded at week 6. Blood and saliva samples were collected for genotyping. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected in the coding, non-coding and the 3' flanking region of the CES1 gene. Genetic association between CES1 variants and ADHD was investigated in an expanded sample of 265 Irish ADHD families. Analyses were conducted using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and logistic regression models. Results: None of the CES1 gene variants were associated with the dose of methylphenidate provided or the clinical response recorded at the 6 week time point. An association between two CES1 SNP markers and the occurrence of sadness as a side effect of short-acting methylphenidate was found. The two associated CES1 markers were in linkage disequilibrium and were significantly associated with ADHD in a larger sample of ADHD trios. The associated CES1 markers were also in linkage disequilibrium with two SNP markers of the noradrenaline transporter gene (SLC6A2). Conclusions: This study found an association between two CES1 SNP markers and the occurrence of sadness as a side effect of short-acting methylphenidate. These markers were in linkage disequilibrium together and with two SNP markers of the noradrenaline transporter gene.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 12/2013; 23(10):655-64. DOI:10.1089/cap.2013.0032 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. This study used exploratory factor analyses to determine the structure of ASD traits (assessed using the Social Communication Questionnaire) in children with ADHD. Distinct factors were observed for 'social' and 'rigidity' traits, corresponding to previous factor analyses in clinical ASD and population samples. This indicates that the split between social-communicative and RRB dimensions is unaffected by ADHD in children. Moreover, the study also finds that there is some overlap across hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and RRB traits in children with ADHD, which merits further investigation.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 06/2013; 44(1). DOI:10.1007/s10803-013-1865-0 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A continuing debate in the child psychopathology literature is the extent to which pharmacotherapy for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in particular stimulant treatment, confers a risk of subsequent drug abuse. If stimulant treatment for ADHD contributes to drug abuse, then the risk versus therapeutic benefits of such treatment is greatly affected. We have prospectively followed an ADHD sample (N = 149; 81% males) for approximately 15 years, beginning at childhood (ages 8 to 10 years) and continuing until the sample has reached young adulthood (ages 22 to 24 years). The sample was originally recruited via an epidemiologically derived community procedure, and all youths were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood. We report on the association of childhood psychostimulant medication and subsequent substance use disorders and tobacco use. The substance use outcomes were based on data collected at three time points when the sample was in late adolescence and young adulthood (age range approximately 18 to 22 years old). We did not find evidence to support that childhood treatment with stimulant medication, including the course of stimulant medication, was associated with any change in risk for adolescent or young adulthood substance use disorders and tobacco use. These results from a community-based sample extend the growing body of literature based on clinically derived samples indicating that stimulant treatment does not create a significant risk for subsequent substance use disorders.Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 09/2011; 20(4):314-329. DOI:10.1080/1067828X.2011.598834 · 0.62 Impact Factor