Rapid diagnostic techniques offer the opportunity of early diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompromized patients at risk of developing CMV disease and syndrome. The use of CMV pp65 antigenemia as a predictor of CMV syndrome and disease in heart transplant recipient after induction therapy was studied retrospectively.
One hundred and nineteen consecutive heart transplant recipients treated with induction therapy who survived more then 14 d were monitored for CMV infection. Ninety-four recipients were seropositive for CMV. Twenty-five recipients were seronegative for CMV and received grafts from seropositive donors. Pre-emptive therapy was used in seropositive patients when CMV pp65 antigenemia was greater than 50 antigen-positive cells per 2 x 10(5) peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL); prophylactic therapy was done only in seronegative recipient matched with seropositive donor.
High-level CMV pp65 antigenemia (50 antigen-positive cells 2 x 10(5) PBL) occurred in 34% (41 of 119) of patients at a median of 44 d following transplantation. In seropositive recipients, 16% (15 of 94) of patients developed CMV invasive disease or syndrome, and in seronegative recipients 20% (5 of 25) of patients developed CMV disease or syndrome. Sixty-six per cent (62 of 94) of CMV seropositive patients were identified as not requiring pre-emptive therapy. In seropositive and seronegative recipients, the sensibility and negative predictive value of the cut-off level of 50 antigen positive cell for CMV disease and syndrome was 100%. The specificity was 79% and positive predictive value was 49%.
Because of the excellent sensibility and negative predictive value of the cut-off level of 50 antigen positive cell per 2 x 10(5) PBL, application of pre-emptive therapy guided by high level of CMV pp65 antigenemia in the context of induction therapy allow to omit antiviral therapy in many at risk patients. In the context of pre-emptive and prophylactic therapy, the cut-off level of 50 antigen positive cell do not allow to predict with accuracy the development of CMV disease or syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medical and surgical advances have made lung transplantation a feasible therapy for end-stage lung disease. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBBx) is an accepted technique for detecting clinically evident rejection and infection in the allograft of symptomatic recipients. The role of TBBx and BAL in managing asymptomatic recipients is less defined. We retrospectively examined the role of bronchoscopy with TBBx and BAL in 1124 bronchoscopy procedures that were performed on 161 lung transplant recipients between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 1993. Bronchoscopy was performed when there was a change in the recipient's clinical condition, to assess the response of the allograft to a prior therapy, and under a surveillance protocol for detecting asymptomatic rejection or infection. Surveillance bronchoscopy was performed according to the following schedule: 10-14 days after transplantation, every 3 mo during the first year, every 4 mo during the second year, and at 6-mo intervals thereafter. Surveillance bronchoscopies were defined as procedures where the physician felt that there was no infection or rejection in the allograft on the basis of a standardized clinical evaluation, which excluded the results of the TBBx and BAL. We compared the clinical impression recorded by the physician on the day of the procedure with the final diagnosis determined after the results of the TBBx and BAL were known. We found unsuspected rejection and/or infection that required therapy in 25% (90/355) of all surveillance bronchoscopy procedures. Most episodes (61/90, 68%) of unsuspected rejection and/or infection occurred in the first 6 mo after transplantation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 01/1996; 152(6 Pt 1):2037-43. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.152.6.8520773 · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by intrapulmonary vascular dilatations and an increased alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaPO(2)). Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentrations are elevated, suggesting that pulmonary NO overproduction may be the mechanism underlying HPS. We investigated whether common bile duct ligation in rats results in lung NO overproduction and whether normalization of NO synthesis by a 6-wk course of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mg x kg(-)(1) x d(-)(1)) prevents HPS. Untreated cirrhotic rats showed increases in AaPO(2) and in cerebral uptake of intravenous (99m)Tc-labeled albumin macroaggregates (indicating intrapulmonary vascular dilatations), with decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance and in pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by angiotensin II and hypoxia. Increases were found in exhaled NO; pulmonary total and calcium-dependent NO synthase (NOS) activities; and pulmonary expression of inducible and, to a lesser extent, endothelial NOS. Accumulation of intravascular macrophages accounted for the inducible NOS expression. L-NAME normalized AaPO(2), brain radioactivity, pulmonary vascular resistance, reactivity to hypoxia and angiotensin II, exhaled NO, and NOS activities. These findings suggest that HPS and the associated reduced response to pulmonary vasoconstrictors seen in untreated cirrhotic rats are related to increased pulmonary NO production dependent primarily on increases in the expression and activities of inducible NOS within pulmonary intravascular macrophages.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10/2001; 164(5):879-85. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.164.5.2009008 · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to successfully transplant solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells represents one of the landmark medical achievements of the twentieth century. Solid organ transplantation has emerged as the standard of care for select patients with severe vital organ dysfunction and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become an important treatment option for patients with a wide spectrum of nonmalignant and malignant hematologic disorders, genetic disorders, and solid tumors. Although advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive management, and prophylaxis and treatment of infectious diseases have made long-term survival an achievable goal, transplant recipients remain at high risk for developing a myriad of serious and often life-threatening complications. Paramount among these are pulmonary complications, which arise as a consequence of the immunosuppressed status of the recipient as well as from such factors as the initial surgical insult of organ transplantation, the chemotherapy and radiation conditioning regimens that precede hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and alloimmune mechanisms mediating host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host responses. As the population of transplant recipients continues to grow and as their care progressively shifts from the university hospital to the community setting, knowledge of the pulmonary complications of transplantation is increasingly germane to the contemporary practice of pulmonary medicine.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2004; 170(1):22-48. DOI:10.1164/rccm.200309-1322SO · 13.00 Impact Factor
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