Monitoring of human cytomegalovirus infections in heart transplant recipients by pp65 antigenemia
ABSTRACT Rapid diagnostic techniques offer the opportunity of early diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompromized patients at risk of developing CMV disease and syndrome. The use of CMV pp65 antigenemia as a predictor of CMV syndrome and disease in heart transplant recipient after induction therapy was studied retrospectively.
One hundred and nineteen consecutive heart transplant recipients treated with induction therapy who survived more then 14 d were monitored for CMV infection. Ninety-four recipients were seropositive for CMV. Twenty-five recipients were seronegative for CMV and received grafts from seropositive donors. Pre-emptive therapy was used in seropositive patients when CMV pp65 antigenemia was greater than 50 antigen-positive cells per 2 x 10(5) peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL); prophylactic therapy was done only in seronegative recipient matched with seropositive donor.
High-level CMV pp65 antigenemia (50 antigen-positive cells 2 x 10(5) PBL) occurred in 34% (41 of 119) of patients at a median of 44 d following transplantation. In seropositive recipients, 16% (15 of 94) of patients developed CMV invasive disease or syndrome, and in seronegative recipients 20% (5 of 25) of patients developed CMV disease or syndrome. Sixty-six per cent (62 of 94) of CMV seropositive patients were identified as not requiring pre-emptive therapy. In seropositive and seronegative recipients, the sensibility and negative predictive value of the cut-off level of 50 antigen positive cell for CMV disease and syndrome was 100%. The specificity was 79% and positive predictive value was 49%.
Because of the excellent sensibility and negative predictive value of the cut-off level of 50 antigen positive cell per 2 x 10(5) PBL, application of pre-emptive therapy guided by high level of CMV pp65 antigenemia in the context of induction therapy allow to omit antiviral therapy in many at risk patients. In the context of pre-emptive and prophylactic therapy, the cut-off level of 50 antigen positive cell do not allow to predict with accuracy the development of CMV disease or syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: The ability to successfully transplant solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells represents one of the landmark medical achievements of the twentieth century. Solid organ transplantation has emerged as the standard of care for select patients with severe vital organ dysfunction and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become an important treatment option for patients with a wide spectrum of nonmalignant and malignant hematologic disorders, genetic disorders, and solid tumors. Although advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive management, and prophylaxis and treatment of infectious diseases have made long-term survival an achievable goal, transplant recipients remain at high risk for developing a myriad of serious and often life-threatening complications. Paramount among these are pulmonary complications, which arise as a consequence of the immunosuppressed status of the recipient as well as from such factors as the initial surgical insult of organ transplantation, the chemotherapy and radiation conditioning regimens that precede hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and alloimmune mechanisms mediating host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host responses. As the population of transplant recipients continues to grow and as their care progressively shifts from the university hospital to the community setting, knowledge of the pulmonary complications of transplantation is increasingly germane to the contemporary practice of pulmonary medicine.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2004; 170(1):22-48. DOI:10.1164/rccm.200309-1322SO · 11.99 Impact Factor
- Value in Health 05/2005; 8(3):387-387. DOI:10.1016/S1098-3015(10)63044-6 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) ORF UL73 encodes the envelope glycoprotein gpUL73-gN, which shows seven genotypes (gN-1, gN-2, gN-3a, gN-3b, gN-4a, gN-4b, gN-4c). The goal of this study was to determine retrospectively the distribution of gN variants in solid organ transplant recipients with HCMV infection and to establish an association with parameters important for monitoring post-transplantation clinical course during a follow-up of up to 2 years. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 40 solid organ transplant recipients were analysed for pp65-antigen by immunofluorescence and gN genotyped by sequencing or RFLP analysis. A correlation between gN genotypes and antigenemia peak was found, showing a highly significant difference between gN-1 and gN-4b variants (P<0.005). In particular, gN-1 seems to be associated with patients developing low level antigenemia (<50 pp65-positive cells/2 x 10(5) PBLs; PPV = 90%), whereas gN-4b predicts significantly higher values (>50 pp65-positive cells/2 x 10(5) PBLs; PPV = 80%). Furthermore, the onset of positive antigenemia is significantly earlier in patients infected with a gN-4b strain, compared with those infected by a gN-1 variant. Reported data further support a role for gN genotypes in HCMV pathogenesis. gN-1 and gN-4b show a significantly different virulence and could serve as early predictors for the progression of HCMV infection in transplant patients.Microbes and Infection 06/2005; 7(5-6):890-6. DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.01.016 · 2.73 Impact Factor