Crystallographic analysis of the interaction of nitric oxide with quaternary-T human hemoglobin.
ABSTRACT In addition to interacting with hemoglobin as a heme ligand to form nitrosylhemoglobin, NO can react with cysteine sulfhydryl groups to form S-nitrosocysteine or cysteine oxides such as cysteinesulfenic acid. Both modes of interaction are very sensitive to the quaternary structure of hemoglobin. To directly view the interaction of NO with quaternary-T deoxyhemoglobin, crystallographic studies were carried out on crystals of deoxyhemoglobin that were exposed to gaseous NO under a variety of conditions. Consistent with previous spectroscopic studies in solution, these crystallographic studies show that the binding of NO to the heme groups of crystalline wild-type deoxyhemoglobin ruptures the Fe-proximal histidine bonds of the alpha-subunits but not the beta-subunits. This finding supports Perutz's theory that ligand binding induces tension in the alpha Fe-proximal histidine bond. To test Perutz's theory, deoxy crystals of the mutant hemoglobin betaW37E were exposed to NO. This experiment was carried out because previous studies have shown that this mutation greatly reduces the quaternary constraints that oppose the ligand-induced movement of the alpha-heme Fe atom into the plane of the porphyrin ring. As hypothesized, the Fe-proximal histidine bonds in both the beta- and the alpha-subunits remain intact in crystalline betaW37E after exposure to NO. With regard to S-nitrosocysteine or cysteine oxide formation, no evidence for the reaction of NO with any cysteine residues was detected under anaerobic conditions. However, when deoxyhemoglobin crystals are first exposed to air and then to NO, the appearance of additional electron density indicates that Cys93(F9)beta has been modified, most likely to cysteinesulfenic acid. This modification of Cys93(F9)beta disrupts the intrasubunit salt bridge between His146(HC3)beta and Asp94(FG1)beta, a key feature of the quaternary-T hemoglobin structure. Also presented is a reanalysis of our previous crystallographic studies [Chan, N.-L., et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 16459-16464] of the interaction of NO with liganded hemoglobin in the quaternary-R2 structure. These studies showed additional electron density at Cys93(F9)beta that was consistent with an NO adduct. However, for reasons discussed in this paper, we now believe that this adduct may be the Hb-S-N.-O-H radical intermediate and not Hb-S-N=O as previously suggested.
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ABSTRACT: Despite their high physiological relevance, haemoglobin crystal structures with NO bound to haem constitute less than 1% of the total ligated haemoglobins (Hbs) deposited in the Protein Data Bank. The major difficulty in obtaining NO-ligated Hbs is most likely to be related to the oxidative denitrosylation caused by the high reactivity of the nitrosylated species with O(2). Here, using Raman-assisted X-ray crystallography, it is shown that under X-ray exposure (at four different radiation doses) crystals of nitrosylated haemoglobin from Trematomus bernacchii undergo a transition, mainly in the β chains, that generates a pentacoordinate species owing to photodissociation of the Fe-NO bond. These data provide a physical explanation for the low number of nitrosylated Hb structures available in the literature.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 01/2013; 69(Pt 1):137-140. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reduction of nitrite by deoxygenated hemoglobin chains has been implicated in red cell-induced vasodilation, although the mechanism for this process has not been established. We have previously demonstrated that the reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin produces a hybrid intermediate with properties of Hb(II)NO(+) and Hb(III)NO that builds up during the reaction retaining potential NO bioactivity. To explain the unexpected stability of this intermediate, which prevents NO release from the Hb(III)NO component, we had implicated the transfer of an electron from the β-93 thiol to NO(+) producing ·SHb(II)NO. To determine if this species is formed and to characterize its properties, we have investigated the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) changes taking place during the nitrite reaction. The EPR effects of blocking the thiol group with N-ethyl-maleimide and using carboxypeptidase-A to stabilize the R-quaternary conformation have demonstrated that ·SHb(II)NO is formed and that it has the EPR spectrum expected for NO bound to the heme in the β-chain plus that of a thiyl radical. This new NO-related paramagnetic species is in equilibrium with the hybrid intermediate "Hb(II)NO(+) ↔ Hb(III)NO", thereby further inhibiting the release of NO from Hb(III)NO. The formation of an NO-related paramagnetic species other than the tightly bound NO in Hb(II)NO was also confirmed by a decrease in the EPR signal by -20 °C incubation, which shifts the equilibrium back to the "Hb(II)NO(+) ↔ Hb(III)NO" intermediate. This previously unrecognized NO hemoglobin species explains the stability of the intermediates and the buildup of a pool of potentially bioactive NO during nitrite reduction. It also provides a pathway for the formation of β-93 cysteine S-nitrosylated hemoglobin [SNOHb:S-nitrosohemoglobin], which has been shown to induce vasodilation, by a rapid radical-radical reaction of any free NO with the thiyl radical of this new paramagnetic intermediate.Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2011; 133(33):13010-22. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NO binding to the T-state of human hemoglobin (HbA) induces the cleavage of the proximal His 30 bonds to the heme iron in the a-chains, whereas it leaves the chain b-hemes hexacoordinated. 31 The structure of the nitrosylated T-state of the W37Eb mutant (W37E) shows that the Fe-His87a 32 bond remains intact. Exactly how mutation affects NO binding and why tension is apparent only 33 in HbA a-heme remains to be elucidated. By means of density functional theory electronic structure 34 calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations we provide an explanation for the poorly 35 understood NO binding properties of HbA and its W37E mutant. The data suggest an interplay 36 between electronic effects, tertiary structure and hydration site modifications in determining the 37 tension in the NO-ligated T-state HbA a-chain.FEBS letters 06/2013; 587(15):2393-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor