Crystallographic analysis of the interaction of nitric oxide with quaternary-T human hemoglobin
ABSTRACT In addition to interacting with hemoglobin as a heme ligand to form nitrosylhemoglobin, NO can react with cysteine sulfhydryl groups to form S-nitrosocysteine or cysteine oxides such as cysteinesulfenic acid. Both modes of interaction are very sensitive to the quaternary structure of hemoglobin. To directly view the interaction of NO with quaternary-T deoxyhemoglobin, crystallographic studies were carried out on crystals of deoxyhemoglobin that were exposed to gaseous NO under a variety of conditions. Consistent with previous spectroscopic studies in solution, these crystallographic studies show that the binding of NO to the heme groups of crystalline wild-type deoxyhemoglobin ruptures the Fe-proximal histidine bonds of the alpha-subunits but not the beta-subunits. This finding supports Perutz's theory that ligand binding induces tension in the alpha Fe-proximal histidine bond. To test Perutz's theory, deoxy crystals of the mutant hemoglobin betaW37E were exposed to NO. This experiment was carried out because previous studies have shown that this mutation greatly reduces the quaternary constraints that oppose the ligand-induced movement of the alpha-heme Fe atom into the plane of the porphyrin ring. As hypothesized, the Fe-proximal histidine bonds in both the beta- and the alpha-subunits remain intact in crystalline betaW37E after exposure to NO. With regard to S-nitrosocysteine or cysteine oxide formation, no evidence for the reaction of NO with any cysteine residues was detected under anaerobic conditions. However, when deoxyhemoglobin crystals are first exposed to air and then to NO, the appearance of additional electron density indicates that Cys93(F9)beta has been modified, most likely to cysteinesulfenic acid. This modification of Cys93(F9)beta disrupts the intrasubunit salt bridge between His146(HC3)beta and Asp94(FG1)beta, a key feature of the quaternary-T hemoglobin structure. Also presented is a reanalysis of our previous crystallographic studies [Chan, N.-L., et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 16459-16464] of the interaction of NO with liganded hemoglobin in the quaternary-R2 structure. These studies showed additional electron density at Cys93(F9)beta that was consistent with an NO adduct. However, for reasons discussed in this paper, we now believe that this adduct may be the Hb-S-N.-O-H radical intermediate and not Hb-S-N=O as previously suggested.
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling agent that is biosynthesized in vivo. NO binds to the heme center in human hemoglobin (Hb) to form the HbNO adduct. This reaction of NO with Hb has been studied for many decades. Of continued interest has been the effect that the bound NO ligand has on the geometrical parameters of the resulting heme-NO active site. Although the crystal structure of a T-state human HbNO complex has been published previously, that of the high affinity R-state HbNO derivative has not been reported to date. We have crystallized and solved the three-dimensional X-ray structure of R-state human HbNO to 1.90 Å resolution. The differences in the FeNO bond parameters and H-bonding patterns between the α and β subunits contribute to understanding of the observed enhanced stability of the α(FeNO) moieties relative to the β(FeNO) moieties in human R-state HbNO.Nitric Oxide 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.04.001 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NO binding to the T-state of human hemoglobin (HbA) induces the cleavage of the proximal His 30 bonds to the heme iron in the a-chains, whereas it leaves the chain b-hemes hexacoordinated. 31 The structure of the nitrosylated T-state of the W37Eb mutant (W37E) shows that the Fe-His87a 32 bond remains intact. Exactly how mutation affects NO binding and why tension is apparent only 33 in HbA a-heme remains to be elucidated. By means of density functional theory electronic structure 34 calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations we provide an explanation for the poorly 35 understood NO binding properties of HbA and its W37E mutant. The data suggest an interplay 36 between electronic effects, tertiary structure and hydration site modifications in determining the 37 tension in the NO-ligated T-state HbA a-chain.FEBS letters 06/2013; 587(15):2393-8. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2013.06.006 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles for formate, acetate, and water protons are reported for aqueous solutions of hemoglobin singly and doubly labeled with a nitroxide and mercury(II) ion at cysteines at beta-93. Using two spin labels, one nuclear and one electron spin, a long intramolecular vector is defined between the two beta-93 positions in the protein. The paramagnetic contributions to the observed 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate constant are isolated from the magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles obtained on a dual-magnet apparatus that provides spectral density functions characterizing fluctuations sensed by intermoment dipolar interactions in the time range from the tens of microseconds to approximately 1 ps. Both formate and acetate ions are found to bind specifically within 5 angstroms of the beta-93 spin-label position and the relaxation dispersion has inflection points corresponding to correlation times of 30 ps and 4 ns for both ions. The 4-ns motion is identified with exchange of the anions from the site, whereas the 30-ps correlation time is identified with relative motions of the spin label and the bound anion in the protein environment close to beta-93. The magnetic field dependence of the paramagnetic contributions in both cases is well described by a simple Lorentzian spectral density function; no peaks in the spectral density function are observed. Therefore, the high frequency motions of the protein monitored by the intramolecular vector defined by the electron and nuclear spin are well characterized by a stationary random function of time. Attempts to examine long vector fluctuations by employing electron spin and nuclear spin double-labeling techniques did not yield unambiguous characterization of the high frequency motions of the vector between beta-93 positions on different chains.Biophysical Journal 02/2005; 88(1):443-54. DOI:10.1529/biophysj.104.046458 · 3.83 Impact Factor