Neuronal expression of the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein in the rat hippocampus after limbic seizures.
ABSTRACT In the brain, the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is predominantly located on the luminal membrane of endothelial cells lining brain microvessels and forming the blood-brain barrier. Many lipophilic drugs, including antiepileptic drugs, are potential substrates for Pgp. Overexpression of Pgp in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier has been determined in patients with drug resistant forms of epilepsy such as temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy and suggested to lead to reduced penetration of antiepileptic drugs into the brain. Expression of Pgp after seizures has also been described in astrocytes, whereas it is not clear whether neurons can express Pgp. In the present study, Pgp expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in rats 24 h after a status epilepticus induced by either pilocarpine or kainate, widely used models of temporal lobe epilepsy. Unexpectedly, in addition to endothelial Pgp staining, intense Pgp staining was found in neurons in the CA3c/CA4 sectors and hilus of the hippocampus formation, but not in other brain regions examined. The neuronal Pgp staining was confirmed by two different Pgp antibodies. Double immunolabeling and confocal microscopy showed that Pgp was colocalized with the neuronal marker neuronal nuclear antigen, but not with the glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. No neuronal Pgp staining was seen in control rats. The expression of Pgp in neurons after limbic seizures was substantiated by determining Pgp encoding genes (mdr1a, mdr1b) in neurons by real time quantitative RT-PCR. Increased Pgp expression in hippocampal neurons is likely to affect the action of drugs with intraneuronal targets and, in view of recent evidence from other cell types, could be associated with prevention of apoptosis which is involved in neuronal damage developing after seizures such as produced by pilocarpine.
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ABSTRACT: Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) are the only class of neurons that is directly exposed to the environment. Therefore, they need to deal with xenobiotic and potentially cytotoxic substances. Here we show for the first time that ORNs possess transporter systems that expel xenobiotics across the plasma membrane. Using calcein and calcium-indicator dyes as xenobiotics, we demonstrate that ORNs appear to express the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP). This endows ORNs with the ability to transport a large number of substrates including calcium-indicator dyes and calcein across their plasma membranes. Conversely, blocking P-glycoprotein and MRP increases the net uptake of these dyes.The Journal of Physiology 02/2003; 546(Pt 2):375-85. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animals exposed to kainic acid (KA) induced status epilepticus display a striking pattern of selective neuronal vulnerability in the hippocampus. Neurons in the hilus/CA3 and CA1 subfields appear particularly sensitive whereas dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells are resistant. The molecular basis for this differential susceptibility remains largely unknown. Recently, an involvement of nitric oxide, c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK) and interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE)-related proteases has been proposed in KA induced neuronal cell death. In the present study, we have determined the regional expression of transcripts for two modulating genes operating in these pathways, i.e., the endogenous protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (PIN), and a cytoplasmic inhibitor of the JNK signal transduction pathway, designated JNK interacting protein-1 (JIP-1) and of the gene for the apoptosis-executing protease Caspase-3 in KA-treated animals. The expression of PIN and JIP-1 was found significantly upregulated in granule cells of the resistant DG. In contrast, an induction of the ICE-related protease Caspase-3 was observed in vulnerable hippocampal regions, i.e. CA1, CA3 and hilus. These results point towards PIN and JIP-1 as antiapoptotic factors contributing to selective resistance of granule cells, whereas Caspase-3 may be involved in cell death of hippocampal CA1, CA3 and hilar neurons in the kainate epilepsy model.Molecular Brain Research 05/1999; 67(1):172-6. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic interface between the blood and the brain. It eliminates (toxic) substances from the endothelial compartment and supplies the brain with nutrients and other (endogenous) compounds. It can be considered as an organ protecting the brain and regulating its homeostasis. Until now, many transport systems have been discovered that play an important role in maintaining BBB integrity and brain homeostasis. In this review, we focus on the role of carrier- and receptor-mediated transport systems (CMT, RMT) at the BBB. These include CMT systems, such as P-glycoprotein, multidrug-resistance proteins 1-7, nucleoside transporters, organic anion transporters, and large amino-acid transporters; RMT systems, such as the transferrin-1 and -2 receptors; and the scavenger receptors SB-AI and SB-BI.Annual Review of Pharmacology 02/2003; 43:629-56. · 21.54 Impact Factor