Effects of PKA modulation on the expression of neuropeptide Y in rat amygdaloid structures during ethanol withdrawal.
ABSTRACT We recently reported that neuropeptide Y (NPY) protein levels and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation are lower in amygdaloid structures during ethanol withdrawal after chronic exposure. Furthermore, we reported that normalization of CREB phosphorylation by infusing protein kinase A (PKA) activator into the central amygdala prevents anxiety-like effects in rats during ethanol withdrawal. Here we investigated whether normalization of CREB phosphorylation by infusing PKA activator (Sp-cAMP) into the central amygdala also normalizes the expression of NPY during ethanol withdrawal. Sprague-Dawley male rats were cannulated targeting the central amygdala and then treated either with Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or control diet for 15 days. Subsequently ethanol-fed rats were withdrawn for 0 and 24h. The control-diet fed and ethanol-withdrawn rats were infused twice with PKA activator or inhibitor (Rp-cAMP). The protein and mRNA levels of NPY were determined in amygdaloid structures using gold-immunolabeling and the in situ RT-PCR procedure. It was found that chronic ethanol treatment has no effect on mRNA and protein levels of NPY in the central, medial, or basolateral amygdala. On the other hand, ethanol withdrawal produced significant reductions in mRNA and protein levels of NPY in the central and medial but not in the basolateral amygdala. The reductions in mRNA and protein levels of NPY were normalized in the central amygdala by infusion with PKA activator in ethanol-withdrawn rats. On the other hand, PKA-inhibitor infusion does not have any effect on mRNA and protein levels of NPY in the central amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats, but significantly decreased the expression of NPY in the central amygdala of control-diet fed rats. These results suggest that the decreased cellular expression of NPY in the central amygdala may play an important role in the CREB-mediated regulation of anxiety-like behaviors during ethanol withdrawal.
Article: Effects of ifenprodil on morphine-induced conditioned place preference and spatial learning and memory in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drug addiction, as well as learning and memory, share common mechanisms in terms of neural circuits and intracellular signaling pathways. In the present study, the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, particularly those containing NR2B subunits, in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and Morris water maze (MWM) learning and memory task was investigated. CPP was used as a paradigm for assessing the rewarding effect of morphine, and MWM was used to measure spatial learning and memory in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that ifenprodil, an antagonist highly selective for NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, dose-dependently blocked the development, maintenance and reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP, without evident impairment of the acquisition and retrieval of spatial memory in the MWM task. However, the consolidation of spatial memory was disrupted by a high dose (10 mg/kg) of ifenprodil. These results clearly demonstrate that NR2B-containing NMDA receptors are actively involved in addiction memory induced by morphine conditioning, but not in the acquisition and retrieval of spatial learning and memory. In conclusion, NR2B-containing NMDA receptors can be considered potential targets for the treatment of opiate addiction.Neurochemical Research 03/2011; 36(3):383-91. · 2.24 Impact Factor
Article: Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthood.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS). DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28451. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most prominent and abundant neuropeptides in the mammalian brain where it interacts with a family of G-protein coupled receptors, including the Y1 receptor subtype (Y1R). NPY-Y1R signalling plays a prominent role in the regulation of several behavioural and physiological functions including feeding behaviour and energy balance, sexual hormone secretion, stress response, emotional behaviour, neuronal excitability and ethanol drinking. Y1R expression is regulated by neuronal activity and peripheral hormones. The Y1R gene has been isolated from rodents and humans and it contains multiple regulatory elements that may participate in the regulation of its expression. Y1R expression in the hypothalamus is modulated by changes in energetic balance induced by a wide variety of conditions (fasting, pregnancy, hyperglycaemic challenge, hypophagia, diet induced obesity). Estrogens up-regulate responsiveness to NPY to stimulate preovulatory GnRH and gonadotropin surges by increasing Y1R gene expression both in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Y1R expression is modulated by different kinds of brain insults, such as stress and seizure activity, and alteration in its expression may contribute to antidepressant action. Chronic modulation of GABAA receptor function by benzodiazepines or neuroactive steroids also affects Y1R expression in the amygdala, suggesting that a functional interaction between the GABAA receptor and Y1R mediated signalling may contribute to the regulation of emotional behaviour. In this paper, we review the state of the art concerning Y1R function and gene expression, including our personal contribution to many of the subjects mentioned above.Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 10/2006; 27(3):308-339. · 11.43 Impact Factor