Characterization of a theta-replicating plasmid from Streptococcus thermophilus.
ABSTRACT Plasmids of Streptococcus thermophilus were previously classified, based on DNA homology, into at least four groups (A-D). Here, we report the characterization of plasmids of group B and D. The sequence analysis of pSMQ173b (group D) indicates that this plasmid contains 4449 bp, five open reading frames (ORFs) and replicates via the rolling-circle mechanism of the pGI3 family. The plasmid pSMQ308 (group B) contains 8144 bp and six ORFs. Two ORFs likely encode a primase/helicase and an integrase. Northern blot experiments demonstrate that these two orfs are transcribed within the three strains containing plasmids of group B. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis shows that pSMQ308 replicates via a theta mechanism. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plasmid replicating via a theta mode in S. thermophilus. Finally, a classification of 20 sequenced S. thermophilus plasmids into six groups based on their mode of replication is proposed.
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ABSTRACT: Eighty-six strains of S. thermophilus were examined for their plasmid content. Thirteen strains were found to contain one or two plasmids ranging in size from 2.1 to 7.4 kb. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed the presence of five distinct groups of DNA homology. The complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pST1 (Accession number X65856), which belongs to the major homology group, was determined. It has a molecular size of 2093 bp, a GC content of 35% and contains one major open reading frame of 945 bp (ORF A). The predicted protein, designated Rep A, showed sequence homology with replication proteins from a group of plasmids which are known to replicate via single-stranded DNA intermediates (ssDNA plasmids).FEMS Microbiology Letters 09/1992; 74(2-3):175-80. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: pCD4, a small, highly stable theta-replicating lactococcal plasmid, was used to develop a food-grade cloning system. Sequence analysis revealed five open reading frames and two putative cis-acting regions. None appears to code for undesirable phenotypes with regard to food applications. Functional analysis of the replication module showed that only the cis-acting ori region and the repB gene coding for the replication initiator protein were needed for the stable replication and maintenance of pCD4 derivatives in Lactococcus lactis. A two-component food-grade cloning system was derived from the pCD4 replicon. The vector pVEC1, which carries the functional pCD4 replicon, is entirely made up of L. lactis DNA and has no selection marker. The companion pCOM1 is a repB-deficient pCD4 derivative that carries an erythromycin resistance gene as a dominant selection marker. The pCOM1 construct can only replicate in L. lactis if trans complemented by the RepB initiator provided by pVEC1. Since only the cotransformants that carry both pVEC1 and pCOM1 can survive on plates containing erythromycin, pCOM1 can be used transiently to select cells that have acquired pVEC1. Due to the intrinsic incompatibility between these plasmids, pCOM1 can be readily cured from the cells grown on an antibiotic-free medium after the selection step. The system was used to introduce a phage resistance mechanism into the laboratory strain MG1363 of L. lactis and two industrial strains. The introduction of the antiphage barrier did not alter the wild-type plasmid profile of the industrial strains. The phenotype was stable after 100 generations and conferred an effective resistance phenotype against phages of the 936 and c2 species.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 05/2001; 67(4):1700-9. · 3.68 Impact Factor
- Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry - BIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM. 01/1993; 57(10):1646-1649.