Overproduction, purification, and characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70.
ABSTRACT Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein (PfHsp70) has been proposed to be involved in the cytoprotection of the malaria parasite through its action as a molecular chaperone. However, the biochemical and chaperone properties of PfHsp70 have not been elucidated. The heterologous overproduction of P. falciparum proteins in Escherichia coli is problematic because of its AT-rich genome and the usage of codons that are rarely used in E. coli. In this paper, we describe the successful overproduction of (His)(6)-PfHsp70 in E. coli using the pQE30 expression vector system. Initial experiments with E. coli [pQE30/PfHsp70] resulted in the overproduction of the full-length protein and truncated derivatives. The RIG plasmid, which encodes tRNAs for rare codons, was engineered into the E. coli [pQE30/PfHsp70] strain, resulting in significant reduction of the truncated (His)(6)-PfHsp70 derivatives and improved yields of the full-length protein. (His)(6)-PfHsp70 was successfully purified using nickel-chelating Sepharose affinity chromatography and its biochemical properties were determined. The V(max), K(m), and k(cat) for the basal ATPase activity of (His)(6)-PfHsp70 were found to be 14.6 nmol/min/mg, 616.5 microM, and 1.03 min(-1), respectively. Gel filtration studies indicated that (His)(6)-PfHsp70 existed largely as a monomer in solution. This is the first study to biochemically describe PfHsp70 and establishes a foundation for future studies on its chaperone properties.
Article: Co-ordinated stage-dependent enhancement of Plasmodium falciparum antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein expression in parasites growing in oxidatively stressed or G6PD-deficient red blood cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) are equipped with protective antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). The latter are only considered to protect against thermal stress. Important issues are poorly explored: first, it is insufficiently known how both systems are expressed in relation to the parasite developmental stage; secondly, it is unknown whether P. falciparum HSPs are redox-responsive, in view of redox sensitivity of HSP in eukaryotic cells; thirdly, it is poorly known how the antioxidant defense machinery would respond to increased oxidative stress or inhibited antioxidant defense. Those issues are interesting as several antimalarials increase the oxidative stress or block antioxidant defense in the parasitized RBC. In addition, numerous inhibitors of HSPs are currently developed for cancer therapy and might be tested as anti-malarials. Thus, the joint disruption of the parasite antioxidant enzymes/HSP system would interfere with parasite growth and open new perspectives for anti-malaria therapy. Stage-dependent mRNA expression of ten representative P. falciparum antioxidant enzymes and hsp60/70-2/70-3/75/90 was studied by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in parasites growing in normal RBCs, in RBCs oxidatively-stressed by moderate H2O2 generation and in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was assayed by Western blotting. The pentosephosphate-pathway flux was measured in isolated parasites after Sendai-virus lysis of RBC membrane. In parasites growing in normal RBCs, mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs displayed co-ordinated stage-dependent modulation, being low at ring, highest at early trophozoite and again very low at schizont stage. Additional exogenous oxidative stress or growth in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs indicated remarkable flexibility of both systems, manifested by enhanced, co-ordinated mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and HSPs. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes was also increased in oxidatively-stressed trophozoites. Results indicated that mRNA expression of parasite antioxidant enzymes and HSPs was co-ordinated and stage-dependent. Secondly, both systems were redox-responsive and showed remarkably increased and co-ordinated expression in oxidatively-stressed parasites and in parasites growing in antioxidant blunted G6PD-deficient RBCs. Lastly, as important anti-malarials either increase oxidant stress or impair antioxidant defense, results may encourage the inclusion of anti-HSP molecules in anti-malarial combined drugs.Malaria Journal 02/2009; 8:113. · 3.19 Impact Factor
Article: Expression of a malarial Hsp70 improves defects in chaperone-dependent activities in ssa1 mutant yeast.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent form of malaria and encodes a large number of molecular chaperones. Because the parasite encounters radically different environments during its lifecycle, many members of this chaperone ensemble may be essential for P. falciparum survival. Therefore, Plasmodium chaperones represent novel therapeutic targets, but to establish the mechanism of action of any developed therapeutics, it is critical to ascertain the functions of these chaperones. To this end, we report the development of a yeast expression system for PfHsp70-1, a P. falciparum cytoplasmic chaperone. We found that PfHsp70-1 repairs mutant growth phenotypes in yeast strains lacking the two primary cytosolic Hsp70s, SSA1 and SSA2, and in strains harboring a temperature sensitive SSA1 allele. PfHsp70-1 also supported chaperone-dependent processes such as protein translocation and ER associated degradation, and ameliorated the toxic effects of oxidative stress. By introducing engineered forms of PfHsp70-1 into the mutant strains, we discovered that rescue requires PfHsp70-1 ATPase activity. Together, we conclude that yeast can be co-opted to rapidly uncover specific cellular activities mediated by malarial chaperones.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e20047. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: 15-Deoxyspergualin hinders physical interaction between basic residues of transit peptide in PfENR and Hsp70-1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The apicoplast of Plasmodium harbors several metabolic pathways. The enzymes required to perform these reactions are all nuclearly encoded and apicoplast targeted (NEAT) proteins. Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-ACP Reductase (PfENR) is one such NEAT protein. The NEAT proteins have a transit peptide which is required for crossing the membranes of apicoplast. We studied the importance of basic residues like Arginine and Lysine within the transit peptide. Previous studies have suggested that all basic residues are essential for apicoplast trafficking. In this study, we demonstrate that only some of these residues are essential (K44, R48, K51, and R52), whereas others are dispensable (R40, K42, and K49). On mutating these specific residues, PfENR is not imported into the apicoplast and is mislocalized to the cytoplasm. We also demonstrate that these residues are also crucial for interaction with Hsp70-1, implying that interactions of Lysine 44, Arginine 48, Lysine 51, and Arginine 52 of the transit peptide with PfHsp70-1 are required for apicoplast trafficking. 15-Deoxyspergualin, which has earlier been proposed to interact with EEVD motif of PfHsp70-1 hinders the physical interaction between these cationic residues of PfENR and Hsp70-1. Hence, we propose that in the transport competent state of NEAT proteins some specific positively charged amino acids in the transit peptide interact with PfHsp70-1, and this interaction is essential for apicoplast targeting.International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 01/2012; 64(1):99-107. · 3.51 Impact Factor