Psychiatric illness among drug court probationers.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to identify the level of psychiatric symptoms reported by probationers involved with a drug court in Hennepin County, Minnesota. Sixty probationers completed a brief demographic interview, the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI) and a measure of medical quality of life. Fifteen participants completed a structured interview for psychiatric diagnosis (SCID-I). The sample was predominantly male, African American, and unemployed. Over 40% had received treatment for psychiatric problems, including 20% who reported a history of inpatient psychiatric admission and 15% currently taking a psychotropic medication. More than 1/3 of BDI and BAI scores were moderate to severe. The mean Short Form (SF)-36 scores were significantly lower than in the general population. Trends suggested more distress associated with: Caucasian race, female gender, less education, unemployment, and less previous legal involvement. Of 15 participants that completed a SCID-I, 13 participants met lifetime diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common diagnoses were major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three participants met diagnostic criteria for current psychotic disorder. Half of participants who currently met criteria for a disorder reported that they had never received psychiatric treatment. Results indicate participants currently were experiencing high rates of emotional symptoms. Serious mental illness was common. Many of these individuals had not been identified previously as needing psychiatric treatment. More frequent and thorough screening for psychiatric illness in drug court settings is necessary to identify serious psychiatric illnesses.
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ABSTRACT: Few studies of gene-environment interactions for the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), life stressors and depression have considered women separately or examined specific types of stressful life events. None have looked at depression during pregnancy. In the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study, women were queried about history of stressful life events and depressive symptoms at the time of enrollment (15-27 weeks gestation). Stressful life events were grouped a priori into "subconstructs" (e.g. economic, legal, abuse, loss) and evaluated by subconstruct, total subconstruct score and total stressful life event score. The effect of genotype on the association between stressful life events and elevated depressive symptoms was assessed in 568 white non-Hispanic participants. The relationship between exposure to abuse and elevated depressive symptoms was more pronounced in the s/s group (OR = 24.5) than in the s/l group (OR = 3.0) and the l/l group (OR = 7.7), but this significant interaction was detected only after excluding 73 (13%) women with recent use of psychotropic medications. There was no evidence of gene-environment interaction in analytic models with other stressful life events subconstructs, total subconstruct score or total stressful life events score. These data offer modest support to other reports of gene-environment interaction and highlight the importance of considering specific stressful life events.Genes Brain and Behavior 08/2007; 6(5):453-64. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00272.x · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug-involved offenders report high rates of mental health problems that can negatively impact criminal justice outcomes. Yet, relatively little attention has been given to the mental health issues of drug court offenders. Therefore, this study examined 449 participants in a Delaware drug court and investigated relationships between mental health, gender, and program completion. Bivariate results indicated that gender was related to both mental health status and completion status. Multivariate findings revealed that two indicators of mental health, depression and being prescribed drugs for a psychological or emotional problem, were significant predictors of drug court completion. Policy implications include assessing the mental health status of all drug court participants at program entry so that services can be provided which aim to improve offender health and increase the likelihood of successful program outcomes. Drug courts must better meet the needs of participants with co-occurring disorders if they are to remain an effective and viable criminal justice intervention.American Journal of Criminal Justice 08/2005; 30(1):55-69. DOI:10.1007/BF02885881
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ABSTRACT: Objectives To study the usefulness of SF-36 in the forensic clinic as an objective complementary test for the assessment of body injuries.Revista Espanola de Medicina Legal 01/2008; 34(1). DOI:10.1016/S0377-4732(08)70021-X