Incorporating robotics into an open-heart program.
ABSTRACT The above described clinical series show that after a careful and thorough training program and stepwise introduction of surgical telemanipulation systems, application of telemanipulations is safe and shows acceptable results. Still, OR times are longer than for conventional procedures, and the operation is demanding, and expensive. The main shortcoming is that the procedure is only suitable for a highly selected patient population. However, despite all the clinical experience gathered in various centers, this technique is still evolving and in its beginning. There are some very promising developments that will improve the benefit of telemanipulators. For the first time, the separation of the surgeon from the surgical field facilitates training of surgeons on simulators. This might lead to a higher standard of surgical performance. Progress in sensor technology will make tactile-force feedback available, and new 3 D-visualization systems are designed to provide a better depth perception and higher resolution of the endoscopic image. Virtual stabilizing systems will enable robotic systems to operate on a virtual arrested heart without the need for CPB or mechanical stabilizers. These and other research topics summarized under the term augmented reality will enhance the natural senses and abilities of the surgeon. More and more, automatization will find its way into the OR. Preoperatively collected data about the patient's anatomy will be used to create safety margins, the robotic system will allow for the surgeon's movements, and instruments will be able to find their way to the surgical site without remote control. Because a stepwise approach has led to the clinical results that we and others have now achieved, it is the basis for further step-by-step development of the application of telemanipulation systems in coronary artery bypass grafting, and possibly other endoscopic procedures in cardiac surgery.
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ABSTRACT: A novel system for image guidance in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) is presented. Key requirement is the availability of 2D-3D registration techniques that can deal with non-rigid motion and deformation. Image guidance for TECAB is mainly required before the mechanical stabilisation of the heart, when the most dominant source of misregistration is the deformation and non-rigid motion of the heart. To augment the images in the endoscope of the da Vinci robot, we have to find the transformation from the coordinate system of the preoperative imaging modality to the system of the endoscopic cameras. In a first step we build a 4D motion model of the beating heart. Intraoperatively we can use the ECG or video processing to determine the phase of the cardiac cycle, as well as the heart and respiratory frequencies. We then take the heart surface from the motion model and register it to the stereo endoscopic images of the da Vinci robot resp. of a validation system using photo-consistency. To take advantage of the fact that there is a whole image sequence available for registration, we use the different phases together to get the registration. We found the similarity function to be much smoother when using more phases. This also showed promising behaviour in convergence tests. Images of the vessels available in the preoperative coordinate system can then be transformed to the camera system and projected into the calibrated endoscope view using two video mixers with chroma keying. It is hoped that the augmented view can improve the efficiency of TECAB surgery and reduce the conversion rate to more conventional procedures.Computerized medical imaging and graphics: the official journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society 09/2009; 34(1):61-8. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A computer-enhanced instrumentation system was used in 148 patients to minimize access in cardiac surgical procedures. The da Vinci telemanipulation system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, Calif) provides a high-resolution 3-dimensional videoscopic image and allows remote, tremor-free, and scaled control of endoscopic surgical instruments with 6 degrees of freedom. By April 2000, the system had been used in 131 patients for coronary artery bypass grafting and 17 patients for mitral valve repair. In the coronary bypass group, the system was used in one of three ways: (1) to take down the internal thoracic artery followed by a minimally invasive direct coronary bypass procedure (n = 81); (2) to perform the anastomosis between the internal thoracic artery and the left anterior descending coronary artery in standard-sternotomy coronary bypass (n = 15); or (3) for total endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting to anastomose the left internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending on the arrested heart (n = 27) or the beating heart (n = 8). In 17 patients with nonischemic mitral valve insufficiency the mitral valve was repaired. Closed-chest cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest (Port-Access technique; Heartport, Inc, Redwood City, Calif) was used for arrested-heart total endoscopic coronary bypass and mitral valve repair. The da Vinci system allows for precise tissue handling and enables the endoscopic performance of cardiac surgical tasks that require a high degree of dexterity (coronary anastomosis, mitral valve repair). No technical mishaps have occurred. The internal thoracic artery was successfully taken down in 79 of 81 patients in the group undergoing minimally invasive coronary bypass and, after a steep learning curve, is currently performed in less than 40 minutes. The postoperative patency rate is 96.3%. Total endoscopic coronary bypass was completed in 22 of 27 cases with 95.4% patency as demonstrated by angiography at 3 months' follow-up. Closed-chest endoscopic beating-heart bypass grafting was successfully performed in 2 out of 8 patients with the use of a new endoscopic stabilizer. In the group having mitral valve repair, primary endoscopic computer-enhanced repair was successfully completed in 14 of 17 patients; three others had to be changed to a standard endoscopic technique, including 1 who required valve replacement. At 3 months' follow-up, 1 additional patient underwent early reoperation for recurrent mitral insufficiency. Overall early and late mortality in this cohort of 148 patients was 2.0% and was not related to the use of the system. In conclusion, computer-enhanced endoscopic cardiac surgery can be performed safely in selected patients. Internal thoracic artery takedown is now routinely performed with good results. Total endoscopic coronary bypass is feasible on the arrested heart but does not offer a major benefit over the minimally invasive direct approach because cardiopulmonary bypass is still required. The early clinical experience with closed-chest beating-heart bypass grafting outlines the limitations of this approach despite some procedural success.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 06/2001; 121(5):842-53. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting requires immobilization of the coronary artery. A suction device (Octopus Tissue Stabilizer), attached to the epicardium and connected rigidly to the operating table rail, was used through limited and full surgical access for single-vessel and multivessel arterial revascularization, respectively. An outline for its application, as used by us to construct 122 anastomoses in 70 patients, including posterior wall grafting (in 9 patients) and sequential grafting on the anterior wall (in 17 patients), is presented.The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 09/1998; 66(2):576-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor