Development of the Asthma Control Test: A survey for assessing asthma control
ABSTRACT Asthma guidelines indicate that the goal of treatment should be optimum asthma control. In a busy clinic practice with limited time and resources, there is need for a simple method for assessing asthma control with or without lung function testing.
The objective of this article was to describe the development of the Asthma Control Test (ACT), a patient-based tool for identifying patients with poorly controlled asthma.
A 22-item survey was administered to 471 patients with asthma in the offices of asthma specialists. The specialist's rating of asthma control after spirometry was also collected. Stepwise regression methods were used to select a subset of items that showed the greatest discriminant validity in relation to the specialist's rating of asthma control. Internal consistency reliability was computed, and discriminant validity tests were conducted for ACT scale scores. The performance of ACT was investigated by using logistic regression methods and receiver operating characteristic analyses.
Five items were selected from regression analyses. The internal consistency reliability of the 5-item ACT scale was 0.84. ACT scale scores discriminated between groups of patients differing in the specialist's rating of asthma control (F = 34.5, P <.00001), the need for change in patient's therapy (F = 40.3, P <.00001), and percent predicted FEV(1) (F = 4.3, P =.0052). As a screening tool, the overall agreement between ACT and the specialist's rating ranged from 71% to 78% depending on the cut points used, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.77.
Results reinforce the usefulness of a brief, easy to administer, patient-based index of asthma control.
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- ". Each subject was assigned the highest level of severity (intermittent, mild, moderate, or severe persistent ) according to clinical features. Asthma Control Test was used to assess the disease control . The clinical characteristics of the study patients are summarized in Table 1. "
ABSTRACT: Isoprostanes are bioactive compounds formed by non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mostly arachidonic, and markers of free radical generation during inflammation. In aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), asthmatic symptoms are precipitated by ingestion of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs capable for pharmacologic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 isoenzyme. We investigated whether aspirin-provoked bronchoconstriction is accompanied by changes of isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC was collected from 28 AERD subjects and 25 aspirin-tolerant asthmatics before and after inhalatory aspirin challenge. Concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and prostaglandin E2 were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Leukotriene E4 was measured by immunoassay in urine samples collected before and after the challenge. Before the challenge, exhaled 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-PGE2, and PGE2 levels did not differ between the study groups. 8-iso-PGE2 level increased in AERD group only (p=0.014) as a result of the aspirin challenge. Urinary LTE4 was elevated in AERD, both in baseline and post-challenge samples. Post-challenge airways 8-iso-PGE2 correlated positively with urinary LTE4 level (p=0.046), whereas it correlated negatively with the provocative dose of aspirin (p=0.027). A significant increase of exhaled 8-iso-PGE2 after inhalatory challenge with aspirin was selective and not present for the other isoprostane measured. This is a novel finding in AERD, suggesting that inhibition of cyclooxygenase may elicit 8-iso-PGE2 production in a specific mechanism, contributing to bronchoconstriction and systemic overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2015.07.001 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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- "Skin trick tests were carried out in compliance with EAACI guidelines . In order to evaluate the level of asthma control the authors used the Asthma Control Test (ACT™), recommended by the GINA Report  . Temperament was assessed with the application of the Formal Characteristic of Behaviour – FCZ (Briskness, Perseverance, Sensory Sensitivity, Emotional Reactivity, Endurance , Activity) – Temperament Inventory – KT (STRELAU) . "
ABSTRACT: Personal and environmental factors might have an impact on strategies of coping with stress and temperamental traits according to the Regulative Theory of Temperament in asthmatic patients. They can modify the clinical picture, the course of a disease and effectiveness of treatment. Personal variables are key factors in determining formal characteristic of behavior and effective management method in asthmatic patients.Physiology & Behavior 06/2015; 149. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.06.023 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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- "Focus of the investigations was on environmental related illness, especially asthma, but also other health conditions and diseases were determined. Asthma control was evaluated from patients' records and it based on spirometry, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and validated questions of Asthma Control Test (ACT) (Nathan et al., 2004; Finnish version of the ACT TM . "
ABSTRACT: Indoor air problems may induce respiratory irritation and inflammation. In occupational settings, long-lasting non-specific building-related symptomatology, not fully medically explained, is encountered. The symptomatology may lead to illness, avoidance behavior and decreased work ability. In Finland, investigations of workers suspected of occupational asthma have revealed excess disability. There are no well-established clinical practices for the condition. The aim was to develop a clinical intervention for patients with non-specific indoor air-related symptoms and decreased work ability. A randomized controlled trial including psychoeducation and promotion of health behavior was carried out in 55 patients investigated for causal relationship between work-related respiratory symptoms and moisture damaged workplaces. Inclusion criteria for disability was the work ability score (WAS) ≤ 7 (scale 0-10) and indoor air-related sick leave ≥14 days the preceding year. After medical evaluation and the 3-session counseling intervention, follow-up at 6-months was assessed using self-evaluated work-ability, sick leave days, quality of life, and illness worries as outcome measures. The mean symptom history was 55.5 months. 82% (45 out of 55) had asthma with normal lung function tests in most cases, although reporting abundant asthma symptoms. 81% of patients (39/48) had symptomatology from multiple organ systems without biomedical explanation, despite environmental improvements at work place. At the psychological counseling sessions, 15 (60%) patients of the intervention (INT, n=25) group showed concerns of a serious disease and in 5 (20%), concerns and fears had led to avoidance and restricted personal life. In the 6-month follow-up, the outcomes in the INT group did not differ from the treatment as usual group. No intervention effects were found. Patients shared features with medically unexplained symptoms and sick building syndrome or idiopathic environmental intolerance. Long environment-attributed non-specific symptom history and disability may require more intensive interventions. There is a need for improved recognition and early measures to prevent indoor-associated disability. Single-center randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN33165676). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.NeuroToxicology 05/2015; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2015.04.010 · 3.05 Impact Factor