Non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes are a dramatic manifestation of coronary artery disease. Multiple clinical trials have shown that early cardiac catheterization improves clinical outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Many antithrombotic agents effectively manage unstable coronary syndromes and serve as adjuncts to percutaneous coronary intervention. Yet, the growing number of pharmacologic agents makes early management of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes increasingly complex. We review the current evidence regarding the optimal integration of early antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapies with early coronary angiography and subsequent revascularization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activators (PAs) are not used for thromboprophylaxis due to rapid clearance, bleeding, and extravascular toxicity. We describe a novel strategy that overcomes these limitations. We conjugated tissue-type PA (tPA) to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against complement receptor type 1 (CR1) expressed primarily on human RBCs. Anti-CR1/tPA conjugate, but not control conjugate (mIgG/tPA), bound to human RBCs (1.2 x 10(3) tPA molecules/cell at saturation), endowing them with fibrinolytic activity. In vitro, RBC-bound anti-CR1/tPA caused 90% clot lysis versus 20% by naive RBCs. In vivo, more than 40% of anti-CR1/(125)I-tPA remained within the circulation ( approximately 90% bound to RBCs) 3 hours after injection in transgenic mice expressing human CR1 (TgN-hCR1) versus less than 10% in wild-type (WT) mice, without RBC damage; approximately 90% of mIgG/(125)I-tPA was cleared from the circulation within 30 minutes in both WT and TgN-hCR1 mice. Anti-CR1/tPA accelerated lysis of pulmonary emboli and prevented stable occlusive carotid arterial thrombi from forming after injection in TgN-hCR1 mice, but not in WT mice, whereas soluble tPA and mIgG/tPA were ineffective. Anti-CR1/tPA caused 20-fold less rebleeding in TgN-hCR1 mice than the same dose of tPA. CR1-directed immunotargeting of PAs to circulating RBCs provides a safe and practical means to deliver fibrinolytics for thromboprophylaxis in settings characterized by a high imminent risk of thrombosis.
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