Two-photon fluorescence correlation microscopy reveals the two-phase nature of transport in tumors.
ABSTRACT Transport parameters determine the access of drugs to tumors. However, technical difficulties preclude the measurement of these parameters deep inside living tissues. To this end, we adapted and further optimized two-photon fluorescence correlation microscopy (TPFCM) for in vivo measurement of transport parameters in tumors. TPFCM extends the detectable range of diffusion coefficients in tumors by one order of magnitude, and reveals both a fast and a slow component of diffusion. The ratio of these two components depends on molecular size and can be altered in vivo with hyaluronidase and collagenase. These studies indicate that TPFCM is a promising tool to dissect the barriers to drug delivery in tumors.
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ABSTRACT: The blood supply of solid tumours affects the outcome of treatment via its influence on the microenvironment of tumour cells and drug delivery. In addition, tumour blood vessels are an important target for cancer therapy. Intravital microscopy of tumours growing in 'window chambers' in animal models provides a means of directly investigating tumour angiogenesis and vascular response to treatment, in terms of both the morphology of blood vessel networks and the function of individual vessels. These techniques allow repeated measurements of the same tumour. Recently, multi-photon fluorescence microscopy techniques have been applied to these model systems to obtain 3D images of the tumour vasculature, whilst simultaneously avoiding some of the problems associated with the use of conventional fluorescence microscopy in living tissues. Here, we review the current status of this work and provide some examples of its use for studying the dynamics of tumour angiogenesis and vascular function.Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 02/2005; 57(1):135-52. · 11.50 Impact Factor
Article: Dynamics of different-sized solid-state nanocrystals as tracers for a drug-delivery system in the interstitium of a human tumor xenograft.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent anticancer drugs have been made larger to pass selectively through tumor vessels and stay in the interstitium. Understanding drug movement in association with its size at the single-molecule level and estimating the time needed to reach the targeted organ is indispensable for optimizing drug delivery because single cell-targeted therapy is the ongoing paradigm. This report describes the tracking of single solid nanoparticles in tumor xenografts and the estimation of arrival time. Different-sized nanoparticles measuring 20, 40, and 100 nm were injected into the tail vein of the female Balb/c nu/nu mice bearing human breast cancer on their backs. The movements of the nanoparticles were visualized through the dorsal skin-fold chamber with the high-speed confocal microscopy that we manufactured. An analysis of the particle trajectories revealed diffusion to be inversely related to the particle size and position in the tumor, whereas the velocity of the directed movement was related to the position. The difference in the velocity was the greatest for 40-nm particles in the perivascular to the intercellular region: difference = 5.8 nm/s. The arrival time of individual nanoparticles at tumor cells was simulated. The estimated times for the 20-, 40-, and 100-nm particles to reach the tumor cells were 158.0, 218.5, and 389.4 minutes, respectively, after extravasation. This result suggests that the particle size can be individually designed for each goal. These data and methods are also important for understanding drug pharmacokinetics. Although this method may be subject to interference by surface molecules attached on the particles, it has the potential to elucidate the pharmacokinetics involved in constructing novel drug-delivery systems involving cell-targeted therapy.Breast cancer research: BCR 08/2009; 11(4):R43. · 5.24 Impact Factor
Article: Fluorescence molecular imaging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a wealth of new fluorescent reporter technologies for tagging of many cellular and subcellular processes in vivo. This imposed contrast is now captured with an increasing number of available imaging methods that offer new ways to visualize and quantify fluorescent markers distributed in tissues. This is an evolving field of imaging sciences that has already achieved major advances but is also facing important challenges. It is nevertheless well poised to significantly impact the ways of biological research, drug discovery, and clinical practice in the years to come. Herein, the most pertinent technologies associated with in vivo noninvasive or minimally invasive fluorescence imaging of tissues are summarized. Focus is given to small-animal imaging. However, while a broad spectrum of fluorescence reporter technologies and imaging methods are outlined, as necessary for biomedical research, and clinical translation as well.Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 02/2006; 8:1-33. · 12.21 Impact Factor
Trevor David McKee