Increased vascular endothelial growth factor production in fibroblasts isolated from strictures in patients with Crohn's disease.
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that is implicated in early wound healing and fibrosis. Fibroblasts may initiate stricture formation in Crohn's disease through overexpression of VEGF. The aim of this study was to examine VEGF expression and regulation in fibroblasts isolated from patients with Crohn's disease.
Fibroblasts were isolated by a primary explant technique from serosal biopsies of non-strictured and strictured segments of bowel from eight patients undergoing resection for Crohn's disease, and normal colon from six patients undergoing resection for benign and malignant colorectal disease. Fibroblasts were cultured with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta and corticosteroids. After 24 h the culture supernatant was collected for VEGF assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
VEGF production was significantly higher in fibroblasts isolated from strictures (mean(s.e.m.) 1980(260) pg/ml) than from non-strictured segments (1116(165) pg/ml) in patients with Crohn's disease or control fibroblasts (898(93) pg/ml). TGF-beta increased VEGF production in normal and non-strictured Crohn's fibroblasts. Corticosteroids suppressed unstimulated VEGF production in all groups.
Enhanced serosal fibroblast VEGF production might play a role in initiating stricture formation in Crohn's disease. VEGF production in serosal fibroblasts is sensitive to stimulation with TGF-beta. Corticosteroids may reduce stricturing through suppression of VEGF.
Article: Up-regulation of intestinal vascular endothelial growth factor by Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis has been recently described as a novel component of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been found increased in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis mucosa. To question whether a pro-inflammatory Escherichia coli could regulate the expression of VEGF in human intestinal epithelial cells, we examine the response of cultured human colonic T84 cells to infection by E. coli strain C1845 that belongs to the typical Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli family (Afa/Dr DAEC). VEGF mRNA expression was examined by Northern blotting and q-PCR. VEGF protein levels were assayed by ELISA and its bioactivity was analysed in endothelial cells. The bacterial factor involved in VEGF induction was identified using recombinant E. coli expressing Dr adhesin, purified Dr adhesin and lipopolysaccharide. The signaling pathway activated for the up-regulation of VEGF was identified using a blocking monoclonal anti-DAF antibody, Western blot analysis and specific pharmacological inhibitors. C1845 bacteria induce the production of VEGF protein which is bioactive. VEGF is induced by adhering C1845 in both a time- and bacteria concentration-dependent manner. This phenomenon is not cell line dependent since we reproduced this observation in intestinal LS174, Caco2/TC7 and INT407 cells. Up-regulation of VEGF production requires: (1) the interaction of the bacterial F1845 adhesin with the brush border-associated decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) acting as a bacterial receptor, and (2) the activation of a Src protein kinase upstream of the activation of the Erk and Akt signaling pathways. Results demonstrate that a Afa/Dr DAEC strain induces an adhesin-dependent activation of DAF signaling that leads to the up-regulation of bioactive VEGF in cultured human intestinal cells. Thus, these results suggest a link between an entero-adherent, pro-inflammatory E. coli strain and angiogenesis which appeared recently as a novel component of IBD pathogenesis.PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(12):e1359. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin systems in serum of Crohn's disease patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to determine soluble angiogenic factors in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and to compare these factors according to the pathological behavior of the disease in order to establish a possible relationship with its evolution in patients with CD. Blood samples were collected from 70 patients with CD, grouped according to their phenotypic behavior, and from 30 healthy controls. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), and their cognate receptors [VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and angiopoietin receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie2)] were assayed by ELISA. Circulating levels of VEGF, PlGF, VEGFR1, Ang2, and Tie2 were significantly higher in CD patients than in healthy controls (489 +/- 271 versus 335 +/- 118 pg/mL, P < 0.001; 31 +/- 9 versus 23 +/- 9 pg/mL, P < 0.001; 1.7 +/- 0.4 versus 1.0 +/- 0.3 ng/mL, P < 0.001; 4.8 +/- 2.0 versus 3.9 +/- 2.0 ng/mL, P < 0.05; and 36 +/- 5 versus 22 +/- 7 ng/mL, P < 0.001, respectively). Conversely, CD patients showed significantly lower serum levels of Ang1 than healthy controls (40 +/- 12 versus 67 +/- 22 ng/mL; P < 0.001). No differences between the groups were found in VEGFR2 serum level. The circulating levels of the angiogenic factors did not differ significantly when the CD patients were classified according to pathological phenotype. In comparison with healthy controls, CD patients were found to have an active angiogenic profile, as detected by significant alterations in levels of angiogenesis soluble markers. These patients did not differ in serum levels of angiogenic factors according to phenotypic disease behavior.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2008; 14(1):61-7. · 4.86 Impact Factor
Article: Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis and implications for future research.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Radiation pneumonitis and subsequent radiation pulmonary fibrosis are the two main dose-limiting factors when irradiating the thorax that can have severe implications for patients' quality of life. In this article, the current concepts about the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are presented. The clinical course of fibrosis, a postulated acute inflammatory stage, and a late fibrotic and irreversible stage are discussed. The interplay of cells and the wide variety of molecules orchestrating the immunologic response to radiation, their interactions with specific receptors, and the cascade of events they trigger are elucidated. Finally, the implications of this knowledge with respect to the therapeutic interventions are critically presented.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 01/2007; 66(5):1281-93. · 4.11 Impact Factor