Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids.

GOTR, UMR 7574-CNRS, 1, Place A-Briand, 92195 Meudon Cedex, France.
Chemical Reviews (Impact Factor: 45.66). 02/2004; 104(1):139-73. DOI: 10.1021/cr020357g
Source: PubMed

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    ABSTRACT: Here we show that a near-infrared (NIR) diode laser is capable of generating vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions in fluoride nanocrystals through photon upconversion (UC) processes. By using Yb3+ and Tm3+ as sensitizers, we successfully obtained the VUV photons with the energy exceeding 6 eV in YF3: Yb, Tm, and Gd nanocrystals. The seven photon UC fluorescence from the 6GJ → 8S7/2 transitions of Gd3+ ions and the possible VUV UC mechanism were reported along with the calculation of the branching ratio under different pumping power excitation. Practically, it offers a promising solution for VUV light generation without cryogens and expensive instrumentations. Fundamentally, the extremely high-order UC processes will intrigue great interest in exploring unusual high-energy radiative transitions in rare earth ions.Keywords: gadolinium ion; high order; upconversion luminescence; vacuum ultraviolet; small size effect
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