Article

What does epidemiology tell us about risk factors for herpes zoster?

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 19.45). 02/2004; 4(1):26-33. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00857-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus as herpes zoster is thought to result from waning of specific cell-mediated immunity, but little is known about its determinants in individuals with no underlying immunosuppression. We systematically reviewed studies of zoster epidemiology in adults and analysed data from a large morbidity study to identify factors that might be modulated to reduce the risk of zoster. Annual zoster incidence in population-based studies varied from 3.6-14.2/10(3) in the oldest individuals. Risk factors identified in analytical studies that could explain this variation included age, sex, ethnicity, genetic susceptibility, exogenous boosting of immunity from varicella contacts, underlying cell-mediated immune disorders, mechanical trauma, psychological stress, and immunotoxin exposure. Our review highlights the lack of information about risk factors for zoster. We suggest areas of research that could lead to interventions to limit the incidence of zoster. Such research might also help to identify risk factors for age-related immune decline.

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Available from: Sara L Thomas, Aug 14, 2015
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    • "This is like other studies. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus involves the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and occurs in approximately 10% to 25% of cases [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Herpes zoster infection is a painful worldwide disease. Inappropriate and delayed treatment causes prolongation of the disease with debilitating symptoms and postherpetic neuralgia. Method. A cross-sectional study evaluated shingles cases admitted in a teaching hospital with one-year followup in north of Iran from 2007 to 2013. Results. From 132 patients, 60.4% were male. Head and neck involvement occurred in 78 people (59.1%), thoracoabdominal region in 37 cases (28%), and extremities in 16 cases (12.1%), and one case (0.8%) got multisites involvement. 54 cases (40.9%) had predisposing factors including diabetes mellitus in 26 cases (19.7%), malignancy in 15 (11.4%), immunosuppressive medication in 7 (5.03%), HIV infection in 3 (2.3%), radiotherapy in 2 (1.5%), and tuberculosis in one patient (0.8%). The most common symptoms were pain (95.5%), weakness (56%), fever (31.1%), headache (30.3%), ocular complaints (27.3%), itching (24.2%), and dizziness (5.3%). 21 cases (15.9%) had bacterial superinfection on blistering areas and overall 18 cases (13.6%) had opium addiction. 4 cases (3.03%) died during admission because of comorbidities. Postherpetic neuralgia was reported in 56 patients (42.5%) after three months and seven cases (5%) in one-year followup. Conclusion. Shortening interval between skin lesion manifestation and starting medication can accelerate lesion improvement and decrease disease course, extension, and complication.
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    • "This is like other studies. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus involves the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and occurs in approximately 10% to 25% of cases [25]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Herpes zoster infection is a painful worldwide disease. Inappropriate and delayed treatment causes prolongation of the disease with debilitating symptoms and postherpetic neuralgia. Method. A cross-sectional study evaluated shingles cases admitted in a teaching hospital with one-year followup in north of Iran from 2007 to 2013. Results. From 132 patients, 60.4% were male. Head and neck involvement occurred in 78 people (59.1%), thoracoabdominal region in 37 cases (28%), and extremities in 16 cases (12.1%), and one case (0.8%) got multisites involvement. 54 cases (40.9%) had predisposing factors including diabetes mellitus in 26 cases (19.7%), malignancy in 15 (11.4%), immunosuppressive medication in 7 (5.03%), HIV infection in 3 (2.3%), radiotherapy in 2 (1.5%), and tuberculosis in one patient (0.8%). The most common symptoms were pain (95.5%), weakness (56%), fever (31.1%), headache (30.3%), ocular complaints (27.3%), itching (24.2%), and dizziness (5.3%). 21 cases (15.9%) had bacterial superinfection on blistering areas and overall 18 cases (13.6%) had opium addiction. 4 cases (3.03%) died during admission because of comorbidities. Postherpetic neuralgia was reported in 56 patients (42.5%) after three months and seven cases (5%) in one-year followup. Conclusion. Shortening interval between skin lesion manifestation and starting medication can accelerate lesion improvement and decrease disease course, extension, and complication.
    03/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/896098
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    • "tome 38 > n84 > avril 2009 doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2008.05.019 l'immunosé nescence ; la diminution de l'immunité spé cifique contre le VZV ; l'augmentation de la susceptibilité a ` dé velopper avec l'a ˆ ge des maladies infectieuses, tumorales et auto-immunes ; l'augmentation du recours aux thé rapeutiques immunosuppressives [7]. Si l'avancée en âge est un facteur de risque bien établi, le sexe, l'origine ethnique, certaines susceptibilités génétiques, les traumatismes physiques et/ou psychologiques en sont d'autres encore controversés [2] [8] [9]. Le VZV est un virus exclusivement humain, responsable de 2 entités cliniques distinctes : la varicelle et le zona. "
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