Genome size variation among accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana
ABSTRACT Estimates of the amount of nuclear DNA of Arabidopsis thaliana, known to be among the lowest within angiosperms, vary considerably. This study aimed to determine genome size of a range of accessions from throughout the entire Eurasian range of the species.
Twenty accessions from all over Europe and one from Japan were examined using flow cytometry.
Significant differences in mean C-values were detected over a 1.1-fold range. Mean haploid (1C) genome size was 0.215 pg (211 Mbp) for all analysed accessions. Two accessions were tetraploid.
A closer investigation of the DNA fractions involved in intraspecific genome size differences in this experimentally accessible species may provide information on the factors involved in stability and evolution of genome sizes.
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ABSTRACT: Polyploidization and subsequent changes in genome size are fundamental processes in evolution and diversification. Little is currently known about the extent of genome size variation within taxa and the evolutionary forces acting on this variation. Arabidopsis kamchatica has been reported to contain both diploid and tetraploid individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the genome size of A. kamchatica, whether there is variation in ploidy and/or genome size in A. kamchatica, and to study how genome size has evolved. We used propidium iodide flow cytometry to measure 2C DNA content of 73 plants from 25 geographically diverse populations of the putative allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica and its parents, A. lyrata and A. halleri. All A. kamchatica plants appear to be tetraploids. The mean 2C DNA content of A. kamchatica was 1.034 pg (1011 Mbp), which is slightly smaller than the sum of its diploid parents (A.lyrata: 0.502 pg, A. halleri: 0.571 pg). A. kamchatica appears to have lost approximately 37.594 Mbp (3.6%) of DNA from its 2C genome. Tetraploid A. lyrata from Germany and Austria appear to have lost approximately 70.366 Mbp (7.2%) of DNA from the 2C genome, possibly due to hybridization with A. arenosa, which has a smaller genome than A. lyrata. We did find genome size differences among A. kamchatica populations, which varied up to 7%. A. kamchatica ssp. kawasakiana from Japan appears to have a slightly larger genome than A. kamchatica ssp. kamchatica from North America, perhaps due to multiple allopolyploid origins or hybridization with A. halleri. However, the among population coefficient of variation in 2C DNA content is lower in A. kamchatica than in other Arabidopsis taxa. Due to its close relationship to A. thaliana, A. kamchatica has the potential to be very useful in the study of polyploidy and genome evolution.AoB PLANTS 05/2014; DOI:10.1093/aobpla/plu025 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genome size was surveyed in 13 Notolathyrus species endemic to South America by flow cytometry and analyzed in an evolutionary and biogeographic context. A DNA content variation of 1.7-fold was registered, and four groups of species with different DNA content were determined. Although, the 2C values were correlated with the total chromosome length and intrachromosomal asymmetry index (A1), the karyotype formula remained almost constant. The conservation of the karyotype formula is in agreement with proportional changes of DNA in the chromosome arms. Species with annual life cycle and shorter generation time had the lowest DNA content and the data suggest that changes in DNA content involved reductions of genome size in the perennial to annual transitions. The variation of 2C values was correlated with precipitation of the coldest quarter and, to some extent, with altitude. Additional correlations with other variables were observed when the species were analyzed separately according to the biogeographic regions. In general, the species with higher DNA content were found in more stable environments. The bulk of evidence suggests that changes on genome size would have been one of the most important mechanisms that drove or accompanied the diversification of Notolathyrus species.Journal of Plant Research 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10265-014-0637-z · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Community-level mass flowering, known as general flowering, which occurs in South-East Asia at supra-annual irregular intervals, is considered a particularly spectacular phenomenon in tropical ecology. Recent studies have proposed several proximate factors inducing general flowering, such as drought and falls in minimum temperature. However, limited empirical data on the developmental and physiological processes have been available to test the significance of such factors. To overcome this limitation and test the hypotheses that general flowering is triggered by the proposed factors, we conducted an 'ecological transcriptome' study of a mass flowering species, Shorea beccariana, comparing meteorological data with genome-wide expression patterns obtained using next-generation sequencing. Among the 98 flowering-related genes identified, the homologs of a floral pathway integrator, SbFT, and a floral repressor, SbSVP, showed dramatic transcriptional changes before flowering, and their flowering functions were confirmed using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in drought-responsive and sucrose-induced genes also changed before flowering. All these expression changes occurred when the flowering-inducing level of drought was reached, as estimated using data from the preceding 10 years. These genome-wide expression data support the hypothesis that drought is a trigger for general flowering.Molecular Ecology 05/2013; 22(18). DOI:10.1111/mec.12344 · 5.84 Impact Factor