Effects of acute and chronic clozapine on D-amphetamine-induced disruption of auditory gating in the rat.
ABSTRACT Auditory gating deficits observed in patients with schizophrenia have been modeled in animals administered the indirect-acting monoaminergic agonist, D-amphetamine (AMPH). The atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine (CLOZ) reverses the disruption of auditory gating in schizophrenic patients. However, its effects on psychostimulant-induced deficits in animals have yet to be assessed.
In the present series of experiments, an auditory evoked potential paradigm was used to: (a) confirm the ability of AMPH to alter auditory gating in the anesthetized rat, (b) specify the nature of the accompanying change(s) in evoked potential waveforms and (c) determine the effects of CLOZ administration on AMPH-induced alterations in auditory gating.
We compared the effects of acute (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and chronic (28 days, 0.5 mg/ml in drinking water) CLOZ on AMPH-induced (1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) alterations in evoked potentials recorded in the hippocampus of anesthetized rats during presentation of a pair of identical tones. Gating was assessed by comparing the amplitude of conditioning and test responses in CLOZ and AMPH-treated rats.
The ratio of test to conditioning response amplitude (T/C ratio) was not altered by vehicle or CLOZ alone. However, T/C ratio was significantly increased following AMPH due to suppression of the conditioning response. Acute but not chronic CLOZ attenuated but did not prevent the increase in T/C ratio.
Qualitative differences between the idiopathic gating deficits observed in schizophrenic patients and AMPH-induced increases in T/C ratio in animals limit this models utility as a means of evaluating the ability of atypical antipsychotic drugs to restore normal sensory gating.
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ABSTRACT: This work concerns the debate surrounding the modified pain reactivity of patients with schizophrenia and other possible perceptive distortions. Rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) were used to model the neuro-developmental aspect of schizophrenia, and their reactivity to various stimuli was evaluated. The results could also help understand sensory deficits in other neuro-developmental disorders. Behavioural reactions to graduated painful thermal and mechanical stimuli were observed, and evoked potential responsiveness to tactile, visual and acoustic non-painful stimuli was recorded and compared to non-operated and sham lesioned controls. A higher threshold was observed with painful mechanical stimuli and shorter paw withdrawal latency with thermal stimuli. This was particularly relevant as there was no change in the evoked potentials triggered by non-nociceptive tactile stimulation of the same part of the body. There was a 10 dB(A) increase in the auditory threshold and a suppression of auditory sensory motor gating. Visually evoked potentials did not appear to be affected. Taken together, the results showed that NVHL-evoked alteration of brain development induces mechanical hypoalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and auditory sensory changes. The data also contribute towards elucidating mechanisms underlying sensory deficits in neurodevelopmental diseases, including schizophrenia.Behavioural brain research 07/2012; 234(2):167-74. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.06.026 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia pathophysiology is associated with alterations in several neurotransmitter systems, particularly dopamine, glutamate and serotonin (5-HT). Schizophrenia patients also have disruptions in sensory gating, a brain information filtering mechanism in response to repeated sensory stimuli. Dopamine and glutamate have been implicated in sensory gating, however little is known about the contribution of serotonin. We therefore investigated the effects of several psychoactive compounds that alter serotonergic neuronal activity on event-related potentials (ERP) to paired auditory pulses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with cortical surface electrodes to measure ERPs to 150 presentations of two 85dB bursts of white noise, 500ms apart (S1 and S2). Saline-treated animals suppressed the response to S2 to less than 50% of S1. In contrast, treatment with the serotonin releaser, MDMA (Ecstasy; 2.0mg/kg), the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, DOI (0.5mg/kg), or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg), caused an increase in S2/S1 ratios. Analysis of waveform components suggested that the S2/S1 ratio disruption by MDMA was due to subtle effects on the ERPs to S1 and S2; DOI caused the disruption primarily by reducing the ERP to S1; 8-OH-DPAT-induced disruptions were due to an increase in the ERP to S2. These results show that 5-HT receptor stimulation alters S2/S1 ERP ratios in rats. These results may help to elucidate the sensory gating deficits observed in schizophrenia patients.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 10/2013; 112. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.09.016 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate (MPD) is currently one of the most prescribed drug therapies for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and moreover is abused for cognitive enhancement and used for recreation by the young and adults. Methylphenidate is used for prolonged periods of time and its mechanism of action on the brain is still unknown. The main action of MPD is known to act on the motive circuit of the brain, and one of these structures is the caudate nucleus (CN). The objective of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological properties of the CN neurons in response to acute and chronic administration of MPD in freely behaving animals, previously implanted with permanent semi microelectrodes. Twenty-six rats were permanently implanted with semi microelectrodes into the CN using general anesthesia. On experimental day one (ED1) the rat was placed into the testing chamber, and neuronal activity was recorded using a wireless (telemetric) headstage device following both a saline and a 2.5 mg/kg MPD injection. From ED2 to ED6 daily injections of 2.5 mg/kg MPD were administered without recordings to induce a chronic effect of the drug, preceded by three days of washout (ED7-ED9) where no injections were given. On ED10 rats were placed back into the testing chamber, the wireless headstage device was attached to skull cap and recordings were resumed for 1 h each following both a saline and re-challenge administration of 2.5 mg/kg MPD. Sixty-seven CN neuronal recorded units from twenty-six animals with identical shape and amplitude at ED1 and ED10 were evaluated. All the 67 CN units responded to MPD administration, 70% (47/67) CN units exhibited an increase in activity following initial 2.5 mg/kg MPD administration and 30% (20/67) exhibited a decrease in neuronal activity. On ED10 all the CN units showed a significant change in their firing rate baseline compared to ED1 baseline, 52% (35/67) exhibiting an increase in their ED10 baseline activity compared to ED1 baseline activity and 48% (32/67) of the CN units at ED10 exhibited decreasing activity. All the CN units responded significantly to MPD rechallenge at ED10, 57% (38/67) of the units exhibited increased neuronal activity while 43% (29/67) exhibited decreasing neuronal activity. The results indicate that the majority of the CN units exhibited neurophysiological sensitization.Brain research bulletin 03/2012; 87(4-5):387-96. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.10.008 · 2.97 Impact Factor