Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from closed colonies, and inbred, spontaneous mutant, and transgenic strains of rats.
ABSTRACT We attempted to cryopreserve spermatozoa from closed colonies (Jcl:SD and Jcl:Wistar), and inbred (BN/Crj, F3441 DuCrj, LEW/Crj, Long-Evans and WKY/NCrj), mutant (Zitter [WTC.ZI-zi] and Tremor [TRM]), transgenic (human A-transferase [A], and green fluorescent protein [GFP]) strains of rats. Rat epididymal spermatozoa suspended in cryopreservation solution (23% egg yolk, 8% lactose monohydrate, and 0.7% Equex Stm, pH 7.4, adjusted with 10% Tris [hydroxymethy] aminomethane) were frozen and stored at -196 degrees C. After thawing at 37 degrees C, the spermatozoa were instilled into the tip of each uterine horn of the recipients. A total of five recipient females for each strain were inseminated with cryopreserved spermatozoa, and normal live offspring of all strains (Jcl:SD: 11, Jcl:Wistar: 13, BN/Crj: 9, F344/DuCrj: 28, LEW/Crj: 4, Long-Evans: 6, WKY/NCrj: 8, TRM: 24, WTC.ZI-zi: 27, A: 30 and GFP: 20) were obtained.
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ABSTRACT: The motility of sperm after freezing and thawing is critical for effective cryopreservation. It is known that supplementation with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) improves cryosurvival of sperm in various animals. To clarify the effects of supplementation with CLC on rabbit sperm motility after freezing and thawing, rabbit sperm motility was analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Sperm motility with CLC supplementation was 29.4 ± 9.6% (mean ± SD), which was significantly higher than that of controls (20.8 ± 7.1%, P<0.05). The curvilinear velocity of sperm with CLC exceeded that of controls, whereas the values for linearity and wobble were significantly lower in sperm with CLC compared with controls. After artificial insemination, 44.3% of recovered ova were fertilized in the CLC-supplemented group, which was higher than the percentage in the control group (36.4%). The results indicate that supplementation with CLC improves the rate and quality of motility in rabbit sperm after freezing and thawing, and would be advantageous for successful cryopreservation.Experimental Animals 01/2014; 63(2):149-54. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cryopreservation of rat sperm is very challenging due to its sensitivity to various stress factors. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal cooling rate and extender for epididymal sperm of outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) and inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. The epididymal sperm from 10 to 12 weeks old sexually mature SD and F344 strains were suspended in five different freezing extenders, namely HEPES buffered Tyrode’s lactate (TL-HEPES), modified Kreb’s Ringer bicarbonate (mKRB), 3% dehydrated skim milk (SM), Salamon’s Tris-citrate (TRIS), and tes/tris (TES). All extenders contained 20% egg yolk, 0.75% Equex Paste and 0.1 M raffinose or 0.1 M sucrose. The sperm samples in each extender were cooled to 4 °C and held for 45 min for equilibration before freezing. The equilibrated sperm samples in each extender were placed onto a shallow quartz dish inserted into Linkam Cryostage (BCS 196). The samples were then cooled to a final temperature of −150 °C by using various cooling rates (10, 40, 70, and 100 °C/min). For thawing, the quartz dish containing the sperm samples were rapidly removed from the Linkam cryo-stage and placed on a 37 °C slide warmer and held for 1 min before motility analysis. Sperm membrane and acrosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed by SYBR-14/Propidium iodide, Alexa Fluor-488-PNA conjugate and JC-1, respectively. The total motility, acrosomal integrity, membrane integrity and MMP values were compared among cooling rates and extenders. Both cooling rate and type of extender had significant effect on cryosurvival (P < 0.05). Sperm motility increased as cooling rate was increased for both strains (P < 0.05). Highest cryosurvival was achieved when 100 °C/min cooling rate was used in combination with TES extender containing 20% egg yolk, 0.75% Equex paste and either 0.1 M sucrose or raffinose (P < 0.05). This study showed that TES extender containing 0.1 M raffinose or sucrose with 70 °C/min and 100 °C/min cooling rate improved post-thaw motility of rat sperm.Cryobiology 01/2013; 67(2):109–116. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sperm preservation protocols differ among animal species because of different sperm characteristics among species. Rat sperm have extreme sensitivity to suboptimal conditions in centrifugation, pipetting and chilling due to their longer tail, the shape and size of the sperm head, and membrane composition. The aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions for short-term storage of rat sperm by evaluating their motility and membrane and acrosomal integrity in response to various extender solutions, temperatures, and durations. Motility of rat sperm was highest when stored at 22 °C; motility was 28% and 14% at 72 h in TL-HEPES and PBS extenders, respectively. The motility and membrane integrity of rat sperm fell significantly within 24 h at 4 and 37 °C. Although cold storage did not have a detrimental effect on acrosomal integrity of sperm, room temperature storage reduced acrosomal integrity after 24 h. LEY extender caused the highest loss in acrosomal integrity at 48 and 72 h. In conclusion, storage at 4 or 37 ° C reduced the motility and membrane integrity of rat sperm even with short incubation periods. Rat sperm stored in TL-HEPES or PBS remained motile for at least 3 d when held at 22 °C.Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 01/2013; 52(6):732-7. · 1.15 Impact Factor