Cryopreservation of Spermatozoa from Closed Colonies, and Inbred, Spontaneous Mutant, and Transgenic Strains of Rats

Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.
Comparative medicine (Impact Factor: 0.74). 01/2004; 53(6):639-41.
Source: PubMed


We attempted to cryopreserve spermatozoa from closed colonies (Jcl:SD and Jcl:Wistar), and inbred (BN/Crj, F3441 DuCrj, LEW/Crj, Long-Evans and WKY/NCrj), mutant (Zitter [WTC.ZI-zi] and Tremor [TRM]), transgenic (human A-transferase [A], and green fluorescent protein [GFP]) strains of rats. Rat epididymal spermatozoa suspended in cryopreservation solution (23% egg yolk, 8% lactose monohydrate, and 0.7% Equex Stm, pH 7.4, adjusted with 10% Tris [hydroxymethy] aminomethane) were frozen and stored at -196 degrees C. After thawing at 37 degrees C, the spermatozoa were instilled into the tip of each uterine horn of the recipients. A total of five recipient females for each strain were inseminated with cryopreserved spermatozoa, and normal live offspring of all strains (Jcl:SD: 11, Jcl:Wistar: 13, BN/Crj: 9, F344/DuCrj: 28, LEW/Crj: 4, Long-Evans: 6, WKY/NCrj: 8, TRM: 24, WTC.ZI-zi: 27, A: 30 and GFP: 20) were obtained.

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    • "In addition, there are also more subtle differences in membrane phospholipid composition and metabolism of spermatozoa [6]. Rat sperm are known to have extreme sensitivity to suboptimal conditions such as centrifugation , pipetting, chilling, osmotic stress [34] [46] [51] freezing and thawing [25] [34] [35] possibly due to unusually long tail, head shape and membrane composition [12] [20] [24]. Thus, acceptable and repeatable rat sperm cryopreservation protocol has not been achieved [57]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cryopreservation of rat sperm is very challenging due to its sensitivity to various stress factors. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal cooling rate and extender for epididymal sperm of outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) and inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. The epididymal sperm from 10 to 12 weeks old sexually mature SD and F344 strains were suspended in five different freezing extenders, namely HEPES buffered Tyrode’s lactate (TL-HEPES), modified Kreb’s Ringer bicarbonate (mKRB), 3% dehydrated skim milk (SM), Salamon’s Tris-citrate (TRIS), and tes/tris (TES). All extenders contained 20% egg yolk, 0.75% Equex Paste and 0.1 M raffinose or 0.1 M sucrose. The sperm samples in each extender were cooled to 4 °C and held for 45 min for equilibration before freezing. The equilibrated sperm samples in each extender were placed onto a shallow quartz dish inserted into Linkam Cryostage (BCS 196). The samples were then cooled to a final temperature of −150 °C by using various cooling rates (10, 40, 70, and 100 °C/min). For thawing, the quartz dish containing the sperm samples were rapidly removed from the Linkam cryo-stage and placed on a 37 °C slide warmer and held for 1 min before motility analysis. Sperm membrane and acrosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed by SYBR-14/Propidium iodide, Alexa Fluor-488-PNA conjugate and JC-1, respectively. The total motility, acrosomal integrity, membrane integrity and MMP values were compared among cooling rates and extenders. Both cooling rate and type of extender had significant effect on cryosurvival (P < 0.05). Sperm motility increased as cooling rate was increased for both strains (P < 0.05). Highest cryosurvival was achieved when 100 °C/min cooling rate was used in combination with TES extender containing 20% egg yolk, 0.75% Equex paste and either 0.1 M sucrose or raffinose (P < 0.05). This study showed that TES extender containing 0.1 M raffinose or sucrose with 70 °C/min and 100 °C/min cooling rate improved post-thaw motility of rat sperm.
    Cryobiology 01/2013; 67(2):109–116. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Likewise, centrifugation can stimulate ROS production in human spermatozoa [5] [38] and can also be detrimental to the spermatozoa because of the production of a burst of ROS [5]. Although a few studies have been conducted to examine the post-thaw effects of rat spermatozoa [40] [50] [54], there are a limited number of studies on physiologic and cryobiologic mechanisms for the low survival. Also, there are no reports which demonstrate changes in rat sperm function during cryopreservation processes and centrifugation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rat sperm cryopreservation is an effective method of archiving valuable strains for biomedical research and handling of rat spermatozoa is very important for successful cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in rat sperm function during cryopreservation and centrifugation. Epididymal rat spermatozoa were subjected to cooling and freezing-thawing processes and then motility, plasma membrane integrity (PMI), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were compared before and after minimum centrifugation force (200×g). Cryopreservation decreased sperm motility, PMI, and MMP (P<0.05). Basal (without ROS inducer, tert-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP] treatment) and stimulated ROS (with TBHP treatment) were increased in viable cooled spermatozoa compared to viable fresh spermatozoa (P<0.01), with equal susceptibility to TBHP among fresh, cooled, and frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Centrifugation decreased motility and PMI of frozen-thawed spermatozoa (P<0.05). Centrifugation decreased basal ROS of all spermatozoa (P<0.01), while it led to higher susceptibility to TBHP in viable cooled spermatozoa, showing higher increased fold in ROS and decreased rate in viability by TBHP in viable cooled spermatozoa (P<0.05). Cooling process was the major step of ROS generation, with loss in sperm motility, PMI, and MMP. Centrifugation affected function of cryopreserved spermatozoa. These data suggest that centrifugation makes rat spermatozoa susceptible to external ROS source, in particular during cooling process. Thus, protection from ROS damage and minimizing centrifugation should be considered during cryopreservation and post-thaw use of cryopreserved epididymal rat spermatozoa.
    Cryobiology 06/2012; 65(3). DOI:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.06.006 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Sperm cryopreservation and in vivo or vitro fertilization Offspring were successfully obtained by intrauterine insemination using cryopreserved rat epididymal spermatozoa, albeit at a lower rate than with fresh spermatozoa (Nakatsukasa et al., 2001). Using this technique mutant and transgenic rat lines have been generated (Nakatsukasa et al., 2003). The use of cryopreserved sperm will likely increase the generation of KO rats from ENU-mutagenized males. "
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    ABSTRACT: The laboratory rat (R. norvegicus) is a very important experimental animal in several fields of biomedical research. This review describes the various techniques that have been used to generate transgenic rats: classical DNA microinjection and more recently described techniques such as lentiviral vector-mediated DNA transfer into early embryos, sperm-mediated transgenesis, embryo cloning by nuclear transfer and germline mutagenesis. It will also cover techniques associated to transgenesis such as sperm cryopreservation, embryo freezing and determination of zygosity. The availability of several technologies allowing genetic manipulation in the rat coupled to genomic data will allow biomedical research to fully benefit from the rat as an experimental animal.
    Transgenic Research 11/2005; 14(5):531-46. DOI:10.1007/s11248-005-5077-z · 2.32 Impact Factor
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