Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Central Poland.
ABSTRACT Resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents among the key respiratory pathogens is increasing worldwide and therefore a rational choice of an empirical treatment requires knowledge of both global and local resistance patterns. The susceptibility of 185 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 169 Haemophilus influenzae isolates collected from January 1999 to May 2002 at the Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland, from 351 children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs) has been determined. Of S. pneumoniae isolates, 84% were susceptible to penicillin, 91% to cefaclor, 95% to cefuroxime, 98% to cefotaxime, 79% to erythromycin, 46% to co-trimoxazole, 82% to clindamycin and 59% to tetracycline. The majority (83%) of erythromycin-resistant isolates tested carried the erm(B) gene, conferring the MLS(B) phenotype. All tetracycline-resistant S. pneumoniae strains analysed were tet(M) positive and tet(O) negative. A total of 24% of H. influenzae isolates were beta-lactamase-positive. H. influenzae susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefaclor, cefuroxime, azithromycin, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole was 100, 89, 94, 96, 96 and 43%, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: A beta-lactamase prevalence of 23% was found among 1,730 Haemophilus influenzae isolates. Ampicillin susceptibility was 70%, and 12% of beta-lactamase-negative strains presented diminished susceptibility to ampicillin (BLNAR phenotype). Susceptibility of 90% was found for cefaclor and clarithromycin, whereas it was nearly 100% for cefotaxime, cefixime, azithromycin, and cefuroxime. Ciprofloxacin-resistant (0.1%) and beta-lactamase-positive amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant (BLPACR) phenotypes (0.1%) are anecdotal so far.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2001; 45(11):3226-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A national antimicrobial resistance surveillance study was conducted from December 1997 to May 1998 to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 6620 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In this centralized study, which involved 163 institutions located in 43 states, we determined MICs for representatives of five antimicrobial classes: beta-lactams (penicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone), macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin), co-trimoxazole, glycopeptides (vancomycin) and fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin). In most S. pneumoniae isolates, all antimicrobials were to be found active, but amongst penicillin-resistant isolates (MICs > or = 2 mg/L), resistance to other beta-lactams, macrolides and co-trimoxazole was common. For vancomycin and levofloxacin, however, activity was not associated with penicillin resistance. The prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible (intermediate and resistant) pneumococci was highest in the South Atlantic (44%) and East South Central (43%) regions and lowest in the Mid-Atlantic (28%) and New England (28%) regions. Resistance to beta-lactams, macrolides and co-trimoxazole was more commonly found amongst respiratory isolates than blood isolates and in strains from patients < or = 12 years old than from older patients. beta-lactamase, which was detected in 33% of H. influenzae and 92% of M. catarrhalis strains, did not affect the activity of the beta-lactams under study other than ampicillin. Certain agents, such as vancomycin and the fluoroquinolones, remain highly active, and well-designed surveillance systems that monitor MIC distributions would be needed to detect a potential for reduced susceptibility. In addition, surveillance programmes should be designed to collect information about associated resistance as well as differences in prevalence associated with region, specimen source and patient age.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 01/2000; 44(6):749-59. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Susceptibilities to macrolides were evaluated in 267 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, of which 182 were from patients with invasive diseases and 85 were from healthy carriers. Of the 98 resistant isolates, 20 strains showed an M phenotype and carried mef. Strains that carried both mef(A) and mef(E) were found: 17 strains carried mef(A) and 3 carried mef(E). The characteristics of the strains carrying the mef genes and the properties of the mef-containing elements were studied. Strains carrying mef(A) belonged to serotype 14, were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested except erythromycin, and appeared to be clonally related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The three mef(E) strains belonged to different serotypes, showed different susceptibility profiles, and did not appear to be related by PFGE. The sequences of a fragment of the mef-containing element, which encompassed mef and the msr(A) homolog, were identical among the three mef(E)-positive strains and among the three mef(A)-positive strains, although there were differences between the sequences for the two variants at 168 positions. In all mef(A)-positive strains, the mef element was inserted in celB, which led to impairment of the competence of the strains. In line with insertion of the mef(E) element at a different site, the competence of the mef(E)-positive strains was maintained. Transfer of erythromycin resistance by conjugation was obtained from two of three mef(A) strains but from none of three mef(E) strains. Due to the important different characteristics of the strains carrying mef(A) or mef(E), we suggest that the distinction between the two genes be maintained.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/2002; 40(3):774-8. · 4.07 Impact Factor