High tolerance of wild Lactobacillus plantarum and Oenococcus oeni strains to lyophilisation and stress environmental conditions of acid pH and ethanol.
ABSTRACT A total of 76 Lactobacillus plantarum and Oenococcus oeni wild strains were recovered from traditionally elaborated Spanish red wines and were investigated with respect to their response to acid pH, lyophilisation, temperature and ethanol concentrations which are normally lethal to lactic acid bacteria. Both L. plantarum and O. oeni strains were able to grow at pH 3.2, were highly resistant to lyophilisation treatment and proliferated in the presence of up to 13% ethanol at 18 degrees C. Therefore, it is shown that both species are highly tolerant to stress conditions and that similarly to O. oeni strains, L. plantarum strains are of interest in beverage biotechnology.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a considerable interest in the cold adaptation of food-related bacteria, including starter cultures for industrial food fermentations, food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens. Mechanisms that permit low-temperature growth involve cellular modifications for maintaining membrane fluidity, the uptake or synthesis of compatible solutes, the maintenance of the structural integrity of macromolecules and macromolecule assemblies, such as ribosomes and other components that affect gene expression. A specific cold response that is shared by nearly all food-related bacteria is the induction of the synthesis so-called cold-shock proteins (CSPs), which are small (7 kDa) proteins that are involved in mRNA folding, protein synthesis and/or freeze protection. In addition, CSPs are able to bind RNA and it is believed that these proteins act as RNA chaperones, thereby reducing the increased secondary folding of RNA at low temperatures. In this review established and novel aspects concerning the structure, function and control of these CSPs are discussed. A model for bacterial cold adaptation, with a central role for ribosomal functioning, and possible mechanisms for low-temperature sensing are discussed.Systematic and Applied Microbiology 07/2000; 23(2):165-73. · 3.29 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a heterogeneous group of bacteria that are traditionally used to produce fermented foods. The industrialization of food bio-transformations increased the economical importance of LAB, as they play a crucial role in the development of the organoleptique and hygienic quality of fermented products. Therefore, the reliability of starter strains in terms of quality and functional properties (important for the development of aroma and texture), but also in terms of growth performance and robustness has become essential. These strains should resist to adverse conditions encountered in industrial processes, for example during starter handling and storage (freeze-drying, freezing or spray-drying). The development of new applications such as life vaccines and probiotic foods reinforces the need for robust LAB since they may have to survive in the digestive tract, resist the intestinal flora, maybe colonize the digestive or uro-genital mucosa and express specific functions under conditions that are unfavorable to growth (for example, during stationary phase or storage). Also in nature, the ability to quickly respond to stress is essential for survival and it is now well established that LAB, like other bacteria, evolved defense mechanisms against stress that allow them to withstand harsh conditions and sudden environmental changes. While genes implicated in stress responses are numerous, in LAB the levels of characterization of their actual role and regulation differ widely between species. The functional conservation of several stress proteins (for example, HS proteins, Csp, etc) and of some of their regulators (for example, HrcA, CtsR) renders even more striking the differences that exist between LAB and the classical model micro-organisms. Among the differences observed between LAB species and B. subtilis, one of the most striking is the absence of a sigma B orthologue in L. lactis ssp. lactis as well as in at least two streptococci and probably E. faecalis. The overview of LAB stress responses also reveals common aspects of stress responses. As in other bacteria, adaptive responses appear to be a usual mode of stress protection in LAB. However, the cross-protection to other stress often induced by the expression of a given adaptive response, appears to vary between species. This observation suggests that the molecular bases of adaptive responses are, at least in part, species (or even subspecies) specific. A better understanding of the mechanisms of stress resistance should allow to understand the bases of the adaptive responses and cross protection, and to rationalize their exploitation to prepare LAB to industrial processes. Moreover, the identification of crucial stress related genes will reveal targets i) for specific manipulation (to promote or limit growth), ii) to develop tools to screen for tolerant or sensitive strains and iii) to evaluate the fitness and level of adaptation of a culture. In this context, future genome and transcriptome analyses will undoubtedly complement the proteome and genetic information available today, and shed a new light on the perception of, and the response to, stress by lactic acid bacteria.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 09/2002; 82(1-4):187-216. · 2.07 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The production of active dried starter cultures can be influenced at several levels in the production process. In this paper the following process factors are discussed: osmotic stress during growth and cell density prior to drying. Contradicting results are reported in the literature on the influence of osmotic stress during growth on the residual activity after drying. The combined approach in which two process factors were studied at a time resulted in an explanation for the discrepancy in earlier work. The cell density prior to drying had an important influence on the glucose fermenting activity after drying. Residual activities ranging from 0.10 to 0.83 were achieved using initial cell densities between 0.025 and 0.23 g of cell/g of sample, respectively. The drying tolerance of cells grown with osmotic stress of 1 M NaCl was low (residual activity = 0. 06) and was not related to the cell density prior to drying. The influence of osmotic stress during growth on the drying tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum was dependent on the cell density prior to drying.Biotechnology Progress 06/1998; 14(3):537-9. · 1.85 Impact Factor