Novel regulation by Rac1 of glucose- and forskolin-induced insulin secretion in INS-1 beta-cells.
ABSTRACT Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose and other secretagogues from pancreatic islet beta-cells is mediated by multiple signaling pathways. Rac1 is a member of Rho family GTPases regulating cytoskeletal organization, and recent evidence also implicates Rac1 in exocytotic processes. Herein, we report that exposure of insulin-secreting (INS) cells to stimulatory glucose concentrations caused translocation of Rac1 from cytosol to the membrane fraction (including the plasmalemma), an indication of Rac1 activation. Furthermore, glucose stimulation increased Rac1 GTPase activity. Time course study indicates that such an effect is demonstrable only after 15 min stimulation with glucose. Expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 mutant (N17Rac1) abolished glucose-induced translocation of Rac1 and significantly inhibited insulin secretion stimulated by glucose and forskolin. This inhibitory effect on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was more apparent in the late phase of secretion. However, N17Rac1 expression did not significantly affect insulin secretion induced by high K+. INS-1 cells expressing N17Rac1 also displayed significant morphological changes and disappearance of F-actin structures. Expression of wild-type Rac1 or a constitutively active Rac1 mutant (V12Rac1) did not significantly affect either the stimulated insulin secretion or basal release, suggesting that Rac1 activation is essential, but not sufficient, for evoking secretory process. These data suggest, for the first time, that Rac1 may be involved in glucose- and forskolin-stimulated insulin secretion, possibly at the level of recruitment of secretory granules through actin cytoskeletal network reorganization.
Article: Deregulation of CREB signaling pathway induced by chronic hyperglycemia downregulates NeuroD transcription.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CREB mediates the transcriptional effects of glucose and incretin hormones in insulin-target cells and insulin-producing β-cells. Although the inhibition of CREB activity is known to decrease the β-cell mass, it is still unknown what factors inversely alter the CREB signaling pathway in β-cells. Here, we show that β-cell dysfunctions occurring in chronic hyperglycemia are not caused by simple inhibition of CREB activity but rather by the persistent activation of CREB due to decreases in protein phophatase PP2A. When freshly isolated rat pancreatic islets were chronically exposed to 25 mM (high) glucose, the PP2A activity was reduced with a concomitant increase in active pCREB. Brief challenges with 15 mM glucose or 30 µM forskolin after 2 hour fasting further increased the level of pCREB and consequently induced the persistent expression of ICER. The excessively produced ICER was sufficient to repress the transcription of NeuroD, insulin, and SUR1 genes. In contrast, when islets were grown in 5 mM (low) glucose, CREB was transiently activated in response to glucose or forskolin stimuli. Thus, ICER expression was transient and insufficient to repress those target genes. Importantly, overexpression of PP2A reversed the adverse effects of chronic hyperglycemia and successfully restored the transient activation of CREB and ICER. Conversely, depletion of PP2A with siRNA was sufficient to disrupt the negative feedback regulation of CREB and induce hyperglycemic phenotypes even under low glucose conditions. Our findings suggest that the failure of the negative feedback regulation of CREB is the primary cause for β-cell dysfunctions under conditions of pathogenic hyperglycemia, and PP2A can be a novel target for future therapies aiming to protect β-cells mass in the late transitional phase of non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes (NIDDM).PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34860. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase alpha deficiency alters dynamics of glucose-stimulated insulin release to improve glucohomeostasis and decrease obesity in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase (PI4P5K) has been proposed to facilitate regulated exocytosis and specifically insulin secretion by generating phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). We sought to examine the role of the α isoform of PI4P5K in glucohomeostasis and insulin secretion. The response of PI4P5Kα(-/-) mice to glucose challenge and a type 2-like diabetes-inducing high-fat diet was examined in vivo. Glucose-stimulated responses and PI4P5Kα(-/-) pancreatic islets and β-cells were characterized in culture. We show that PI4P5Kα(-/-) mice exhibit increased first-phase insulin release and improved glucose clearance, and resist high-fat diet-induced development of type 2-like diabetes and obesity. PI4P5Kα(-/-) pancreatic islets cultured in vitro exhibited decreased numbers of insulin granules docked at the plasma membrane and released less insulin under quiescent conditions, but then secreted similar amounts of insulin on glucose stimulation. Stimulation-dependent PIP(2) depletion occurred on the plasma membrane of the PI4P5Kα(-/-) pancreatic β-cells, accompanied by a near-total loss of cortical F-actin, which was already decreased in the PI4P5Kα(-/-) β-cells under resting conditions. Our findings suggest that PI4P5Kα plays a complex role in restricting insulin release from pancreatic β-cells through helping to maintain plasma membrane PIP(2) levels and integrity of the actin cytoskeleton under both basal and stimulatory conditions. The increased first-phase glucose-stimulated release of insulin observed on the normal diet may underlie the partial protection against the elevated serum glucose and obesity seen in type 2 diabetes-like model systems.Diabetes 02/2011; 60(2):454-63. · 8.29 Impact Factor
Article: Gene targeting implicates Cdc42 GTPase in GPVI and non-GPVI mediated platelet filopodia formation, secretion and aggregation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cdc42 and Rac1, members of the Rho family of small GTPases, play critical roles in actin cytoskeleton regulation. We have shown previously that Rac1 is involved in regulation of platelet secretion and aggregation. However, the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation remains controversial. This study was undertaken to better understand the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation. We utilized the Mx-cre;Cdc42(lox/lox) inducible mice with transient Cdc42 deletion to investigate the involvement of Cdc42 in platelet function. The Cdc42-deficient mice exhibited a significantly reduced platelet count than the matching Cdc42(+/+) mice. Platelets isolated from Cdc42(-/-), as compared to Cdc42(+/+), mice exhibited (a) diminished phosphorylation of PAK1/2, an effector molecule of Cdc42, (b) inhibition of filopodia formation on immobilized CRP or fibrinogen, (c) inhibition of CRP- or thrombin-induced secretion of ATP and release of P-selectin, (d) inhibition of CRP, collagen or thrombin induced platelet aggregation, and (e) minimal phosphorylation of Akt upon stimulation with CRP or thrombin. The bleeding times were significantly prolonged in Cdc42(-/-) mice compared with Cdc42(+/+) mice. Our data demonstrate that Cdc42 is required for platelet filopodia formation, secretion and aggregation and therefore plays a critical role in platelet mediated hemostasis and thrombosis.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22117. · 4.09 Impact Factor