Probing the stereochemistry of the active site of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase using sulfur derivatives of l-glutamic acid.
ABSTRACT Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) catalyses the transfer of a gamma-glutamyl moiety from a donor substrate to different acceptors, such as amino acids and water. GGT is known to display relatively low stereospecificity with respect to the alpha-stereocentre of its donor substrates. In this study we have studied its stereospecificity with respect to the stereocentre at the delta-position of different analogues of L-glutamic acid. Notably, L-methionine sulfoxide is well-recognised whereas L-methionine sulfone and L-methionine sulfoximine are not. Furthermore, when the synthetic gamma-diastereoisomers of L-methionine sulfoxide were separated and tested, it was discovered that GGT shows remarkable stereospecificity at the gamma-position, binding the S(C)S(S) diastereoisomer with a K(i) of 3.5 mM, whereas the S(C)R(S) diastereoisomer is not recognised. Finally, using a sulfoxide as a new pharmacophore for GGT, we have synthesized and tested an analogue of glutathione to obtain a very promising competitive inhibitor with a K(i) of (53 +/- 3) microM.
Article: Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of L- and D-S-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)homocysteine for tumor imaging using positron emission tomography.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interest in radiolabeled amino acids for metabolic imaging of cancer and limitations with [(11)C]methionine has prompted the development of a new (18)F-labeled methionine derivative S-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)homocysteine ([(18)F]FPHCys). The L and D enantiomers of [(18)F]FPHCys were prepared from their respective protected S-(3-tosyloxypropyl)homocysteine precursors 1 by [(18)F]fluoride substitution using K(2.2.2) and potassium oxalate, followed by acid hydrolysis on a Tracerlab FX(FN) synthesis module. [(18)F]-L-FPHCys and [(18)F]-D-FPHCys were isolated in 20 ± 5% radiochemical yield and >98% radiochemical and enantiomeric purity in 65 min. Competitive uptake studies in A375 and HT29 tumor cells suggest that L- and D-[(18)F]FPHCys are taken up by the L-transporter system. [(18)F]-L-FPHCys and [(18)F]-D-FPHCys displayed good stability In Vivo without incorporation into protein at least 2 h postinjection. Biodistribution studies demonstrate good uptake in A375 tumor-bearing rodents with tumor to blood ratios of 3.5 and 5.0 for [(18)F]-L-FPHCys and [(18)F]-D-FPHCys, respectively, at 2 h postinjection.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2011; 54(6):1860-70. · 4.80 Impact Factor
Article: Inhibiting Glutathione Metabolism in Lung Lining Fluid as a Strategy to Augment Antioxidant Defense.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glutathione is abundant in the lining fluid that bathes the gas exchange surface of the lung. On the one hand glutathione in this extracellular pool functions in antioxidant defense to protect cells and proteins in the alveolar space from oxidant injury; on the other hand, it functions as a source of cysteine to maintain cellular glutathione and protein synthesis. These seemingly opposing functions are regulated through metabolism by gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, EC 188.8.131.52). Even under normal physiologic conditions, lung lining fluid (LLF) contains a concentrated pool of GGT activity exceeding that of whole lung by about 7-fold and indicating increased turnover of glutathione at the epithelial surface of the lung. With oxidant stress LLF GGT activity is amplified even further as glutathione turnover is accelerated to meet the increased demands of cells for cysteine. Mouse models of GGT deficiency confirmed this biological role of LLF GGT activity and revealed the robust expansiveness and antioxidant capacity of the LLF glutathione pool in the absence of metabolism. Acivicin, an irreversible inhibitor of GGT, can be utilized to augment LLF fluid glutathione content in normal mice and novel GGT inhibitors have now been defined that provide advantages over acivicin. Inhibiting LLF GGT activity is a novel strategy to selectively augment the extracellular LLF glutathione pool. The enhanced antioxidant capacity can maintain lung epithelial cell integrity and barrier function under oxidant stress.Current Enzyme Inhibition 07/2011; 7(2):71-78.