Little was known of the natural history of dental caries among older adults until recently, but reports from a number of large cohort studies have now enabled better understanding of the nature and determinants of dental caries in older people. The aim of this review is to examine and compare findings from established population-based longitudinal studies of older adults in order to determine their preventive implications.
The dental literature was reviewed in order to identify reports on dental caries incidence from large, population-based dental longitudinal studies of older adults (age 50+) with at least 3 years of follow-up.
Reports were identified from four studies (in Iowa, North Carolina, Ontario and South Australia) which met the criteria; four reports dealt with coronal caries, and five with root surface caries. When annualised, coronal and root surface caries increments were combined and compared with those reported for adolescents, the caries experience of older people over time (between 0.8 and 1.2 new surfaces affected per year) exceeded that reported from cohort studies of adolescents (between 0.4 and 1.2 surfaces per year). The only caries risk factor common to all four studies was the wearing of a partial denture (for root surface caries only).
Older people are a caries-active group, experiencing new disease at a rate which is at least as great as that of adolescents.
Dentate older people should be the target of intensive monitoring and preventive efforts at both the clinical practice and public health levels. There is no easily identifiable 'magic bullet' for preventing caries in that age group, but the use of evidence-based preventive interventions (such as fluoride) should suffice.
"Dental caries is perhaps the major oral problem among older people. Reports from prospective cohort studies of populationbased samples of community-dwelling older people [10,14–16] have shown that dental caries is remarkably active among older people, with a mean increment of about 1 surface per year  . That rate is no different from the increment observed among adolescents and younger adults . "
"As dental caries are strongly associated with social determinants experienced during the life course   , it is possible that social determinants can also influence the longevity of restorations by the same pathway. However, this remains to be established, because most investigations on restoration longevity have focused on materials and techniques or cavity preparation features [2–4,66]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resin composites have become the first choice for direct posterior restorations and are increasingly popular among clinicians and patients. Meanwhile, a number of clinical reports in the literature have discussed the durability of these restorations over long periods. In this review, we have searched the dental literature looking for clinical trials investigating posterior composite restorations over periods of at least 5 years of follow-up published between 1996 and 2011. The search resulted in 34 selected studies. 90% of the clinical studies indicated that annual failure rates between 1% and 3% can be achieved with Class I and II posterior composite restorations depending on several factors such as tooth type and location, operator, and socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral elements. The material properties showed a minor effect on longevity. The main reasons for failure in the long term are secondary caries, related to the individual caries risk, and fracture, related to the presence of a lining or the strength of the material used as well as patient factors such as bruxism. Repair is a viable alternative to replacement, and it can increase significantly the lifetime of restorations. As observed in the literature reviewed, a long survival rate for posterior composite restorations can be expected provided that patient, operator and materials factors are taken into account when the restorations are performed.
"Dental caries is a significant problem for adults. Despite a widely held perception that caries is a disease of childhood, it has become clear that the incidence of new lesions in adults is approximately the same as the incidence in adolescents . Dentistry has been slow to recognize and address this problem. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations.
X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80) to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions.
This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office.
BMC Oral Health 09/2010; 10(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-10-22 · 1.13 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.