Characteristics of Violent Bars and Bar Patrons

Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, 1021 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA.
Journal of studies on alcohol 12/2003; 64(6):765-72. DOI: 10.15288/jsa.2003.64.765
Source: PubMed


The present analysis is an attempt to examine the characteristics of bars in which violence occurs while accounting for the personalities of the clientele that frequent the bar. It is proposed that an explanation of why violence occurs at certain bars requires examining the characteristics of the bars, the personalities of the clientele, and how these two types of variables act together in order to give rise to aggressive behavior.
We conducted interviews with frequent bar patrons (n = 327), assessing participants on a number of individual differences related to aggression and drinking behavior as well as on characteristics of the usual bar that they attend. Bars were categorized into violent bars (n = 256) or nonviolent bars (n = 71) based on participant responses.
Participants' age, alcohol dependence and anger expression differentiated those who frequented violent bars from those who frequented nonviolent bars. The relationship of these individual differences to bar type was mediated by a number of characteristics of the bar itself, including noise, temperature, the presence of bouncers, the gender of the workers, the presence of billiards and illegal activities in the bar.
The results indicate that individuals having certain personality characteristics are attracted to bar environments that promote antinormative behaviors such as violence. However, it seems to be the characteristics of the bars that are the strongest predictors of violence.

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    • "If the elements upon which diversification takes place are associated with alcohol-related problems, the bar itself may then become geographically associated with alcohol-related problems as it reaches its targeted market (Gruenewald, 2007). For example, if a bar intended to diversify by adding dancing for entertainment or lowering drink prices, it is possible that bar would then attract clientele predisposed to violent behavior since low drink prices and dancing are associated with bars that are classified as violent (Quigley et al., 2003). Though the data in our study included type and class of bars, they did not indicate information about the social and physical context within an alcohol outlet aside from the kind of alcohol it is permitted to sell. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the spatio-temporal relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet locations and crime events in Buffalo, New York. Specifically, this research examined whether crime became clustered around on-premises alcohol outlet locations after those locations were licensed. Data from licensed alcohol outlets and violent crime events that occurred between 2005 and 2011 were analyzed using global and local bivariate space-time k-function analyses. The global bivariate space-time K-function analyses indicated that there was dispersion between bars and crime over space and time. Personal crimes showed both dispersion and clustering. Local analyses revealed clustering between alcohol outlets and crimes at discrete space-time intervals. Spatio-temporal analysis of the association between bars and crime gives an indication of the direction of the relationship between them. If this dynamic is better understood, it could be better regulated.
    Applied Geography 03/2015; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.02.006 · 3.08 Impact Factor
    • "Although the presence of alcohol and drugs is a key factor in many incidences of patron self-harm, violence, and antisocial behavior in or near licensed events and venues, it is also the case that various environmental factors have been identified as acerbating these problems. These factors include: low lighting; overcrowding; long queues; poorly maintained decor and seating; high noise levels; the presence of rubbish and waste in or around an event/venue; poor ventilation; long operating hours; patron/attendee access to water and food; and high temperatures (Allsop, Pascal, & Chikritzhs, 2005; Graham et al., 2006; Morgan & McAtamney, 2009; Quigley, Leonard, & Collins, 2003). To this mix of factors can be added: patron/attendee perceptions that aggression is tolerated by management; failure to dissipate groups immediately outside venues; high alcohol prices at events and venues that lead to attendee's " preloading " prior to entry; cheap alcohol promotions; lack of alcohol control by security staff and serving staff; and inadequate access to public transport (Barton & Husk, 2012; Homel & Clark, 1994; Hughes et al., 2011; Martin, Freeman, & Davey, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major challenges of operating events and venues is that of managing attendee/patron alcohol and drug use. In the Australian context, a rising number of alcohol and drug-related incidents in and around these settings have resulted in a renewed focus on how these negative outcomes can be more effectively controlled. In order to aid those charged with the task of addressing this matter—event and venue managers, police, security firms, alcohol and drug regulatory bodies, and governments at all levels—this article seeks to identify those variables with the potential to impact this management issue. Further, it aims to provide the previously identified stakeholders with a deeper appreciation of the raft of practices that are currently in use, and potentially available to them, as they build responses to this challenge at the individual state, precinct, venue, or event level. The research approach used involved an extensive literature review and a series of in-depth interviews with key stakeholders across three states—New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia.
    Event Management 12/2014; 18(4). DOI:10.3727/152599514X14143427352238
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    • "Glasses and bottles are frequently the most accessible weapons in premises and coupled with the level of harm that they can cause, make glassware in bars a significant risk factor for serious injury [47]. Furthermore, the presence of empty glasses and other litter on tables may signal low levels of social order, increasing the risk of violence; numerous studies have reported an association between untidy premises and disorder [26,36,40,46,48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. METHODS: An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises' customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. CONCLUSIONS: It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696.
    BMC Public Health 06/2012; 12(1):412. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-412 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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