The present analysis is an attempt to examine the characteristics of bars in which violence occurs while accounting for the personalities of the clientele that frequent the bar. It is proposed that an explanation of why violence occurs at certain bars requires examining the characteristics of the bars, the personalities of the clientele, and how these two types of variables act together in order to give rise to aggressive behavior.
We conducted interviews with frequent bar patrons (n = 327), assessing participants on a number of individual differences related to aggression and drinking behavior as well as on characteristics of the usual bar that they attend. Bars were categorized into violent bars (n = 256) or nonviolent bars (n = 71) based on participant responses.
Participants' age, alcohol dependence and anger expression differentiated those who frequented violent bars from those who frequented nonviolent bars. The relationship of these individual differences to bar type was mediated by a number of characteristics of the bar itself, including noise, temperature, the presence of bouncers, the gender of the workers, the presence of billiards and illegal activities in the bar.
The results indicate that individuals having certain personality characteristics are attracted to bar environments that promote antinormative behaviors such as violence. However, it seems to be the characteristics of the bars that are the strongest predictors of violence.
"If the elements upon which diversification takes place are associated with alcohol-related problems, the bar itself may then become geographically associated with alcohol-related problems as it reaches its targeted market (Gruenewald, 2007). For example, if a bar intended to diversify by adding dancing for entertainment or lowering drink prices, it is possible that bar would then attract clientele predisposed to violent behavior since low drink prices and dancing are associated with bars that are classified as violent (Quigley et al., 2003). Though the data in our study included type and class of bars, they did not indicate information about the social and physical context within an alcohol outlet aside from the kind of alcohol it is permitted to sell. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the spatio-temporal relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet locations and crime events in Buffalo, New York. Specifically, this research examined whether crime became clustered around on-premises alcohol outlet locations after those locations were licensed. Data from licensed alcohol outlets and violent crime events that occurred between 2005 and 2011 were analyzed using global and local bivariate space-time k-function analyses. The global bivariate space-time K-function analyses indicated that there was dispersion between bars and crime over space and time. Personal crimes showed both dispersion and clustering. Local analyses revealed clustering between alcohol outlets and crimes at discrete space-time intervals. Spatio-temporal analysis of the association between bars and crime gives an indication of the direction of the relationship between them. If this dynamic is better understood, it could be better regulated.
"Glasses and bottles are frequently the most accessible weapons in premises and coupled with the level of harm that they can cause, make glassware in bars a significant risk factor for serious injury
. Furthermore, the presence of empty glasses and other litter on tables may signal low levels of social order, increasing the risk of violence; numerous studies have reported an association between untidy premises and disorder
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. METHODS: An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises' customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. CONCLUSIONS: It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696.
BMC Public Health 06/2012; 12(1):412. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-412 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"The absence of individual-level data in this study preclude us from determining the precise mechanisms that link an increase of one bar per square mile with a 3% increased likelihood of IPV-related ED visits in a given zip code. It is possible, for example, that men who drink in bars that have physical or social characteristics that make violence more likely (e.g., Quigley et al., 2003) may return home to their spouse/partner in a disinhibited, aggressive state in which conflict can rapidly escalate to IPV. Treno et al. (Treno et al., 2007a), in a multilevel study of bars, hostility and aggression found that bars may serve to concentrate aggressive people into selected environments, and that these environments may serve to increase levels of aggression. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research has identified risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) severity, injury, and emergency department (ED) visits. These risk factors have been shown at both the individual level (heavy drinking and other substance use on the part of 1 or both partners) and the neighborhood level (residence in an area characterized by poverty and social disadvantage). Alcohol outlet density has been linked with assaultive violence in community settings, but has not been analyzed in relation to IPV-related ED visits. This study examined the effects of outlet densities on IPV-related ED visits throughout California between July 2005 and December 2008.
Half-yearly counts of ED visits related to IPV (E-code 967.3) were computed for each zip code from patient-level public data sets. Alcohol outlet density measures, calculated separately for bars, off-premise outlets, and restaurants, were derived from California Alcohol Beverage Control records. Census-based neighborhood demographic characteristics previously shown to be related to health disparities and IPV (percent black, percent Hispanic, percentage below 150% of poverty line, percent unemployed) were included in models. This study used Bayesian space-time models that allow longitudinal analysis at the zip code level despite frequent boundary redefinitions. These spatial misalignment models control for spatial variation in geographic unit definitions over time and account for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive (CAR) priors. The model incorporated data from between 1,686 (2005) and 1,693 (2008) zip codes across California for 7 half-year time periods from 2005 through 2008 (n = 11,836).
Density of bars was positively associated with IPV-related ED visits. Density of off-premise outlets was negatively associated with IPV-related ED visits; this association was weaker and smaller than the bar association. There was no association between density of restaurants and IPV-related ED visits.
Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which environmental factors, such as alcohol outlet density, affect IPV behaviors resulting in ED visits.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2012; 36(5):847-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01683.x · 3.21 Impact Factor
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