Accuracy of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for assessing area and density of mouse cortical bone.
ABSTRACT Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is increasingly used for measurement of cortical bone geometry and density in mice. We evaluated the accuracy of pQCT for area and density measurements of thin-walled aluminum phantoms and mouse femora. Aluminum tubes with varying wall thicknesses and femora from 1- to 6-month-old C3H/HeJ (C3H) and C57B1/6J (B6) mice (average cortical thickness 0.14-0.29 mm) were scanned at 70- or 90-microm resolution. pQCT values of area were compared to optical values determined after sectioning, while pQCT density (vBMD) was compared to solid aluminum density or correlated to bone ash content. For the aluminum phantoms, the error in pQCT area and density depended strongly on wall thickness, and density was consistently underestimated. For mouse femora, threshold values were found that produced zero error in bone area for each strain and age group, although the optimal threshold differed between groups. pQCT vBMD correlated strongly with ash content (r2=0.7), although the regression equations differed between strains and the magnitude of the inter-strain difference in vBMD was fourfold greater than the difference in ash content. This finding suggests that pQCT can overestimate the differences in volumetric mineral density between inbred mouse strains whose bones are of different thickness (e.g., C3H vs. B6). In conclusion, both area and density values obtained by pQCT depend strongly on specimen thickness, consistent with a partial volume averaging artifact. Investigators using pQCT to assess cortical bones in mice should be aware of the potential for cortical thickness-dependent errors.
Article: Optimizing Results From pQCTJournal of Clinical Densitometry - J CLIN DENSITOM. 01/2005; 8(3):335-340.
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ABSTRACT: The degradation of the main fibrillar collagens, collagens I and II, is a crucial process for skeletal development. The most abundant dipeptides generated from the catabolism of collagens contain proline and hydroxyproline. In humans, prolidase is the only enzyme able to hydrolyze dipeptides containing these amino acids at their C-terminal end, thus being a key player in collagen synthesis and turnover. Mutations in the prolidase gene cause prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare recessive disorder. Here we describe 12 PD patients, 9 of whom were molecularly characterized in this study. Following a retrospective analysis of all of them a skeletal phenotype associated with short stature, hypertelorism, nose abnormalities, microcephaly, osteopenia and genu valgum, independent of both the type of mutation and the presence of the mutant protein was identified. In order to understand the molecular basis of the bone phenotype associated with PD, we analyzed a recently identified mouse model for the disease, the dark-like (dal) mutant. The dal/dal mice showed a short snout, they were smaller than controls, their femurs were significantly shorter and pQCT and μCT analyses of long bones revealed compromised bone properties at the cortical and at the trabecular level in both male and female animals. The differences were more pronounce at 1month being the most parameters normalized by 2months of age. A delay in the formation of the second ossification center was evident at postnatal day 10. Our work reveals that reduced bone growth was due to impaired chondrocyte proliferation and increased apoptosis rate in the proliferative zone associated with reduced hyperthrophic zone height. These data suggest that lack of prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme involved in the final stage of protein catabolism, is required for normal skeletogenesis especially at early age when the requirement for collagen synthesis and degradation is the highest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Bone 11/2014; 72C:53-64. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animal models are essential research tools for investigating the musculoskeletal system. Analysis of bone morphology and bone density can provide information about skeletal phenotypes, including characterization of the skeletal effects of aging, disease, and dietary, genetic, pharmacologic, or mechanical interventions.05/2011: pages 45-56;