Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein interacts with ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 in retinal pigment epithelium.
ABSTRACT To characterize mechanisms of apical localization of visual cycle components in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by the identification of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) interaction partners.
An overlay assay was used to detect interactions of CRALBP with components of RPE microsomes. Interacting proteins were identified with two-dimensional (2D)-PAGE and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). Protein interactions were characterized by affinity chromatography, peptide competition, and expression of protein domains. Protein colocalization in mouse retina was examined using double-label immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy.
CRALBP bound to a 54-kDa protein in RPE microsomes, which was identified as ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin)-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50), a PDZ domain protein, also known as sodium/hydrogen exchanger regulatory factory type 1 (NHERF-1). EBP50 and ezrin in solubilized microsomes bound to CRALBP-agarose but not to a control agarose column. CRALBP bound to both recombinant PDZ domains of EBP50 but not to the C-terminal ezrin-binding domain. In outer retina, EBP50 and ezrin were localized to RPE and Müller apical processes. CRALBP was distributed throughout both RPE and Müller cells, including their apical processes.
RM proteins are multivalent linkers that connect plasma membrane proteins with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. EBP50 interacts with ERM family members through a C-terminal domain and binds targets such as CRALBP through its PDZ domains, thus contributing to an apical localization of target proteins. Our results provide a structural basis for apical localization of a retinoid-processing complex in RPE cells and offer insight into the cell biology of retinoid processing and trafficking in RPE.
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ABSTRACT: To determine molecular mechanisms for the release of 11-cis-retinal from the binding pocket of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP). Binding of CRALBP to lipid surfaces was assessed with a lipid-immunoblot assay. Lipids were presented to CRALBP as small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC) plus other lipids. Release of 9-cis-retinal or 11-cis-retinal from CRALBP was measured with spectral and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays based on the protection of the protein-bound retinal carbonyl group from reaction with NH(2)OH. The electrostatic surface potential of CRALBP was calculated from a model of its structure using the program CCP4mg. Incubation of CRALBP.11-cis-retinal with lipids absorbed on nitrocellulose revealed binding to the acidic lipids, phosphatidic acid (PA)>phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)]>phosphatidylserine (PS)> PI(4,5)P(2) and little or no binding to PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), or PI(4)P. 11-cis-retinal was released during incubation of CRALBP with SUVs consisting of PC plus 50 mol% PA but not during incubation with those composed of 100 mol% PC. The efficacy of release of 9-cis-retinal or 11-cis-retinal from CRALBP by phospholipid-containing SUVs generally paralleled that of the binding of CRALBP to the lipids (PA>PS>PI>PC). Examination of the electrostatic surface potential of the protein structure revealed a basic recess on one face of the protein, which may bind acidic lipids. Our results identify the first physiologic substances that release 11-cis-retinal from CRALBP. PA and PS are relatively minor membrane lipids that can be generated in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane in response to various signal transduction pathways, where they could interact with cytosolic CRALBP. The mechanism for release of retinal from CRALBP by acidic lipids remains to be determined but could involve binding of the acidic lipid in the 11-cis-retinal binding site or to the positive basic recess on the protein surface. These results open a new facet in our understanding of how CRALBP functions in the regeneration of visual pigments.Molecular vision 02/2009; 15:844-54. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We used immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy to determine whether enzymes of the rod visual cycle were uniformly distributed in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The localizations of these enzymes were compared to known localizations of retinoid-binding proteins and associated proteins. Antibodies to proteins and enzymes associated with the rod visual cycle were used for fluorescence immunocytochemistry with frozen sections of albino mouse and rat retina. Images were obtained with a laser scanning confocal microscope. Components associated with the rod visual cycle were distributed in three distinct patterns in mouse and rat RPE. Three visual cycle enzymes (RDH5, LRAT, and RPE65) were restricted to the somata of RPE cells and were not detected within apical processes. Ezrin, an actin-binding protein, and ERM-binding phosphoprotein50/sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor1 (EBP50/NHERF1), an ezrin-binding PDZ-domain protein, were largely restricted to RPE apical processes. The fluorescence intensity over Müller cell apical processes was less intense. Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), which binds to EBP50/NHERF1, and cellular retinol-binding protein type 1 (CRBP1) were found throughout RPE cells and Müller cells. Visual cycle enzymes were confined to the somata of RPE cells and did not occur within the long apical processes, either in dark- or light-adapted animals. Other components previously linked to the visual cycle (EBP50/NHERF1 and ezrin) were largely confined to the apical processes, where they could be associated with release of 11-cis-retinal or uptake of all-trans-retinol. CRALBP and CRBP1 were distributed throughout the RPE cell, where they could mediate diffusion of retinoids between apical processes and somata.Molecular vision 02/2009; 15:223-34. · 2.20 Impact Factor
Article: Cochlin induced TREK-1 co-expression and annexin A2 secretion: role in trabecular meshwork cell elongation and motility.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fluid flow through large interstitial spaces is sensed at the cellular level, and mechanistic responses to flow changes enables expansion or contraction of the cells modulating the surrounding area and brings about changes in fluid flow. In the anterior eye chamber, aqueous humor, a clear fluid, flows through trabecular meshwork (TM), a filter like region. Cochlin, a secreted protein in the extracellular matrix, was identified in the TM of glaucomatous patients but not controls by mass spectrometry. Cochlin undergoes shear induced multimerization and plays a role in mechanosensing of fluid shear. Cytoskeletal changes in response to mechanosensing in the ECM by cochlin will necessitate transduction of mechanosensing. TREK-1, a stretch activated outward rectifying potassium channel protein known to act as mechanotransducer was found to be expressed in TM. Cochlin expression results in co-expression of TREK-1 and filopodia formation. Prolonged cochlin expression results in expression and subsequent secretion of annexin A2, a protein known to play a role in cytoskeletal remodeling. Cochlin interacts with TREK-1 and annexin A2. Cochlin-TREK-1 interaction has functional consequences and results in changes in cell shape and motility. Annexin A2 expression and secretion follows cochlin-TREK-1 syn-expression and correlates with cell elongation. Thus cytoskeleton changes in response to fluid shear sensed by cochlin are further mediated by TREK-1 and annexin A2.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23070. · 4.09 Impact Factor