A phase 2 evaluation of live attenuated parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3)-cold passage mutant 45 (cp45) vaccine was conducted in 380 children 6-18 months old; 226 children (59%) were seronegative for PIV3. Of the 226 seronegative children, 114 received PIV3-cp45 vaccine, and 112 received placebo. No significant difference in the occurrence of adverse events (i.e., runny nose, cough, or temperature > or =38 degrees C) was noted during the 14 days after vaccination. There was no difference between groups in the occurrence of acute otitis media or serous otitis media. Paired serum samples were available for 109 of the seronegative vaccine recipients and for 110 of the seronegative placebo recipients; 84% of seronegative vaccine recipients developed a > or =4-fold increase in antibody titers. The geometric mean antibody titer after vaccination was 1 : 25 in the vaccine group and <1 : 4 in the placebo group. PIV3-cp45 vaccine was safe and immunogenic in seronegative children and should be evaluated for efficacy in a phase 3 field trial.
"Currently, there are no vaccines or antivirals approved for the prevention and treatment of HPIV3 infection. Although the HPIV3 candidate vaccine cp45 (Belshe et al., 2004) was shown to be safe and immunogenic in young children in phase I and II trials, it still needs to be evaluated in phase III efficacy studies. Clinical evaluation of bovine/human PIV3 chimeras, another attractive HPIV3 candidate vaccine, is at the early stage of development (Durbin et al., 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important respiratory tract pathogen of infants and children. There are no vaccines or antivirals currently approved for prevention or treatment of HPIV3 infection. Towards developing an antiviral therapy to combat HPIV3 infection, we have established a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged HPIV3 infected-cell assay and used it for screening of a small molecule library obtained from ChemBridge Diver. Two novel small molecules (C5 and C7) which shared structural similarities were identified and their inhibitory effects on HPIV3 were confirmed in CV-1 and human lung epithelium A549 cells by plaque assay, Western blot and Northern blot analyses. C5 and C7 effectively prevented the cytopathic effect in cells infected with HPIV3, achieving IC(50) values of 2.36 microM and 0.08 microM, respectively, for infectious virus production. The inhibition appears to be at the primary transcriptional level of HPIV3 life cycle based on sequential time course test, binding and internalization assays, and finally by a minigenome transcription assay in cells as well as measuring viral transcripts in cells in the presence of anisomycin. Interestingly, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), another member of mononegavirales order, was also inhibited by these compounds, whereas poliovirus-a picornavirus was not. Use of these inhibitors has a strong potential to develop novel antiviral agents against this important human pathogen.
Antiviral Research 03/2008; 77(2):83-94. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.09.001 · 3.94 Impact Factor
"The second attenuated virus being developed for HPIV-3 vaccines, cp45, is based on a live cpts vaccine containing many attenuating mutations. This vaccine is both well-tolerated and immunogenic in children and infants, even those as young as 1 to 2 months     and is being further evaluated in clinical trials . Given the promise of this candidate, an attenuated RSV vaccine (the 248/404 cpts vaccine) was tested in combination with the HPIV-3 cp45 vaccine. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the recently identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and the human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), cause most cases of childhood croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Influenza virus also causes a significant burden of disease in young children, although its significance in children was not fully recognized until recently. This article discusses pathogens that have been studied for several decades, including RSV and HPIVs, and also explores the newly identified viral pathogens HMPV and human coronavirus NL63. The escalating rate of emergence of new infectious agents, fortunately meeting with equally rapid advancements in molecular methods of surveillance and pathogen discovery, means that new organisms will soon be added to the list. A section on therapies for bronchiolitis addresses the final common pathways that can result from infection with diverse pathogens, highlighting the mechanisms that may be amenable to therapeutic approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of the overarching impact of new diagnostic strategies.
Pediatric Clinics of North America 11/2006; 53(5):929-59, ix-x. DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2006.08.004 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated a combination respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV3) live, attenuated intranasal vaccine for safety, viral replication, and immunogenicity in doubly seronegative children 6-18 months old. RSV cpts-248/404 and PIV3-cp45 vaccines were combined in a dose of 10(5) plaque-forming units of each per 0.5-mL dose and compared with monovalent vaccines or placebo. The virus shedding pattern of RSV was not different between monovalent RSV cpts-248/404 vaccine and combination vaccine. Modest reductions in the shedding of PIV3-cp45 vaccine virus were found after the administration of RSV cpts-248/404 and PIV3-cp45 vaccine, relative to monovalent PIV3 vaccine; 16 (76%) of 21 children given combination vaccine shed PIV3-cp45 versus 11 (92%) of 12 of those given monovalent PIV3 vaccine. Both vaccines were immunogenic, and antibody responses were similar between the monovalent groups and the combination group. Combined RSV/PV3 vaccine is feasible for simultaneous administration, and further studies are warranted.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2005; 190(12):2096-103. DOI:10.1086/425981 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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