Phase 2 Evaluation of Parainfluenza Type 3 Cold Passage Mutant 45 Live Attenuated Vaccine in Healthy Children 6–18 Months Old
ABSTRACT A phase 2 evaluation of live attenuated parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3)-cold passage mutant 45 (cp45) vaccine was conducted in 380 children 6-18 months old; 226 children (59%) were seronegative for PIV3. Of the 226 seronegative children, 114 received PIV3-cp45 vaccine, and 112 received placebo. No significant difference in the occurrence of adverse events (i.e., runny nose, cough, or temperature > or =38 degrees C) was noted during the 14 days after vaccination. There was no difference between groups in the occurrence of acute otitis media or serous otitis media. Paired serum samples were available for 109 of the seronegative vaccine recipients and for 110 of the seronegative placebo recipients; 84% of seronegative vaccine recipients developed a > or =4-fold increase in antibody titers. The geometric mean antibody titer after vaccination was 1 : 25 in the vaccine group and <1 : 4 in the placebo group. PIV3-cp45 vaccine was safe and immunogenic in seronegative children and should be evaluated for efficacy in a phase 3 field trial.
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- "Currently, there are no vaccines or antivirals approved for the prevention and treatment of HPIV3 infection. Although the HPIV3 candidate vaccine cp45 (Belshe et al., 2004) was shown to be safe and immunogenic in young children in phase I and II trials, it still needs to be evaluated in phase III efficacy studies. Clinical evaluation of bovine/human PIV3 chimeras, another attractive HPIV3 candidate vaccine, is at the early stage of development (Durbin et al., 2003). "
ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important respiratory tract pathogen of infants and children. There are no vaccines or antivirals currently approved for prevention or treatment of HPIV3 infection. Towards developing an antiviral therapy to combat HPIV3 infection, we have established a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged HPIV3 infected-cell assay and used it for screening of a small molecule library obtained from ChemBridge Diver. Two novel small molecules (C5 and C7) which shared structural similarities were identified and their inhibitory effects on HPIV3 were confirmed in CV-1 and human lung epithelium A549 cells by plaque assay, Western blot and Northern blot analyses. C5 and C7 effectively prevented the cytopathic effect in cells infected with HPIV3, achieving IC(50) values of 2.36 microM and 0.08 microM, respectively, for infectious virus production. The inhibition appears to be at the primary transcriptional level of HPIV3 life cycle based on sequential time course test, binding and internalization assays, and finally by a minigenome transcription assay in cells as well as measuring viral transcripts in cells in the presence of anisomycin. Interestingly, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), another member of mononegavirales order, was also inhibited by these compounds, whereas poliovirus-a picornavirus was not. Use of these inhibitors has a strong potential to develop novel antiviral agents against this important human pathogen.Antiviral Research 03/2008; 77(2):83-94. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.09.001 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated a combination respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV3) live, attenuated intranasal vaccine for safety, viral replication, and immunogenicity in doubly seronegative children 6-18 months old. RSV cpts-248/404 and PIV3-cp45 vaccines were combined in a dose of 10(5) plaque-forming units of each per 0.5-mL dose and compared with monovalent vaccines or placebo. The virus shedding pattern of RSV was not different between monovalent RSV cpts-248/404 vaccine and combination vaccine. Modest reductions in the shedding of PIV3-cp45 vaccine virus were found after the administration of RSV cpts-248/404 and PIV3-cp45 vaccine, relative to monovalent PIV3 vaccine; 16 (76%) of 21 children given combination vaccine shed PIV3-cp45 versus 11 (92%) of 12 of those given monovalent PIV3 vaccine. Both vaccines were immunogenic, and antibody responses were similar between the monovalent groups and the combination group. Combined RSV/PV3 vaccine is feasible for simultaneous administration, and further studies are warranted.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2005; 190(12):2096-103. DOI:10.1086/425981 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood illness for which medical advice is sought. Whilst the disease rarely results in death, there is a significant level of morbidity and economic burden on the community. Although the causes of OM are multifactoral, bacterial and viral infections are the single most important cause. Bacteria responsible for infections of the middle ear are predominantly, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Antibiotics have been widely used to treat children who present to a medical clinic with OM. However, given the high prevalence of this disease and the increasing incidence of microbial resistance to antibiotics, there is a need to develop alternative therapeutic strategies such as vaccination. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination has produced disappointing results for effectiveness in preventing OM and there is evidence of an increased incidence of disease due to non-vaccine serotypes. An efficacious vaccine for bacterial OM would require combining protective protein antigens from all three causative bacteria. A combined bacterial-viral vaccine formulation would produce the most profound and sustained impact on reducing the global incidence of OM.Vaccine 04/2005; 23(17-18):2304-10. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.01.023 · 3.49 Impact Factor