A randomized trial evaluating a predominantly fetal growth-based strategy to guide management of gestational diabetes in Caucasian women.
ABSTRACT To compare the management of Caucasian women with gestational diabetes (GDM) based predominantly on monthly fetal growth ultrasound examinations with an approach based solely on maternal glycemia.
Women with GDM who attained fasting capillary glucose (FCG) <120 mg/dl and 2-h postprandial capillary glucose (2h-CG) <200 mg/dl after 1 week of diet were randomized to management based on maternal glycemia alone (standard) or glycemia plus ultrasound. In the standard group, insulin was initiated if FCG was repeatedly >90 mg/dl or 2h-CG was >120 mg/dl. In the ultrasound group, thresholds were 120 and 200 mg/dl, respectively, or a fetal abdominal circumference >75th percentile (AC>p75). Outcome criteria were rates of C-section, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, neonatal hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dl), and neonatal care admission.
Maternal characteristics and fetal AC>p75 (36.0 vs. 38.4%) at entry did not differ between the standard (n = 100) and ultrasound groups (n = 99). Assignment to (30.0 vs. 40.4%) and mean duration of insulin treatment (8.3 vs. 8.1 weeks) did not differ between groups. In the ultrasound group, AC>p75 was the sole indication for insulin. The ultrasound-based strategy, as compared with the maternal glycemia-only strategy, resulted in a different treatment assignment in 34% of women. Rates of C-section (19.0 vs. 18.2%), LGA (10.0 vs. 12.1%), SGA (13.0 vs. 12.1%), hypoglycemia (16.0 vs. 17.0%), and admission (15.0 vs. 14.1%) did not differ significantly.
GDM management based on fetal growth combined with high glycemic criteria provides outcomes equivalent to management based on strict glycemic criteria alone. Inclusion of fetal growth might provide the opportunity to reduce glucose testing in low-risk pregnancies.
Article: Maternal lipids as strong determinants of fetal environment and growth in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the contribution of maternal glucose and lipids to intrauterine metabolic environment and fetal growth in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In 150 pregnancies, serum triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin, and glucose were determined in maternal serum and cord blood during the 3rd trimester. Maternal glucose values came from oral glucose tolerance testing and glucose profiles. Measurements of fetal abdominal circumference (AC) were performed simultaneously with maternal blood sampling and birth weight, and BMI and neonatal fat mass were obtained following delivery. Maternal TGs and FFAs correlated with fetal AC size (at 28 weeks: triglycerides, P = 0.001; FFAs, P = 0.02), and at delivery they correlated with all neonatal anthropometric measures (FFA: birth weight, P = 0.002; BMI, P = 0.001; fat mass, P = 0.01). After adjustment for confounding variables, maternal FFAs and TGs at delivery remained the only parameters independently related to newborns large for gestational age (LGA) (P = 0.008 and P = 0.04, respectively). Maternal FFA levels were higher in mothers with LGA newborns than in those with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns (362.8 +/- 101.7 vs. 252.4 +/- 10.1, P = 0.002). Maternal levels of TGs, FFAs, and glycerol at delivery correlated with those in cord blood (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, and P = 0.005, respectively). Fetal triglyceride and cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with newborn birth weight (P = 0.001), BMI (P = 0.004), and fat mass (P = 0.001). TGs were significantly higher in small for gestational age (SGA) newborns compared with AGA or LGA newborns, while insulin-to-glucose ratio and FFAs were the highest in LGA newborns. In well-controlled GDM pregnancies, maternal lipids are strong predictors for fetal lipids and fetal growth. Infants with abnormal growth seem to be exposed to a distinct intrauterine environment compared with those with appropriate growth.Diabetes care 08/2008; 31(9):1858-63. · 8.09 Impact Factor
Article: Factors predicting the need for insulin therapy in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the possible factors predicting the insulin requirement in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 294 patients with GDM diagnosed by the 100-g/3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were studied. The following factors were analyzed: maternal age, nulliparity, family history of diabetes, prepregnancy BMI, prior GDM, prior fetal macrosomia, multiple pregnancy, polyhydramnios, gestational age at diagnosis of GDM, smoking, hypertension, number of abnormal 100-g/3-h OGTT values, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The association between each factor and the need for insulin therapy was then analyzed individually. The performance of these factors to predict the probability of insulin therapy was estimated using a logistic regression model. Univariate analysis showed a positive correlation between insulin therapy and prepregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, hypertension, prior GDM, prior fetal macrosomia, number of abnormal 100-g/3-h OGTT values, and HbA1c (P<0.05). Prepregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, number of abnormal 100-g/3-h OGTT values and HbA1c were statistically significant variables in the logistic regression model. The probability of insulin therapy can be estimated in pregnant women with GDM based on prepregnancy BMI, family history of diabetes, number of abnormal 100-g/3-h OGTT values, and HbA1c concentration.Diabetes research and clinical practice 04/2010; 88(1):81-6. · 2.16 Impact Factor
Diabetes Care 09/2004; 27(8):2084-5. · 8.09 Impact Factor