Glucose-induced regulation of COX-2 expression in human islets of Langerhans.

Centre for Reproduction, Endocrinology and Diabetes, King's College London, London, UK.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 8.47). 03/2004; 53 Suppl 1:S190-2. DOI: 10.2337/diabetes.53.2007.S190
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cyclo-oxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids, exists as two isoforms. In most tissues, COX-1 is a constitutive enzyme involved in prostaglandin-mediated physiological processes, whereas COX-2 is thought to be induced by inflammatory stimuli. However, it has previously been reported that COX-2 is the dominant isoform in islets and an insulin-secreting beta-cell line under basal conditions. We have investigated the relative abundance of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNAs in MIN6 cells, a mouse insulin-secreting cell line, and in primary mouse and human islets. We found that COX-2 was the dominant isoform in MIN6 cells, but that COX-1 mRNA was more abundant than that of COX-2 in freshly isolated mouse islets. Furthermore, COX-2 expression was induced by maintenance of mouse islets in culture, and experiments with human islets indicated that exposure of the islets to hyperglycemic conditions was sufficient to upregulate COX-2 mRNA levels. Given that hyperglycemia has been reported to increase human beta-cell production of interleukin-1beta and that this cytokine can induce COX-2 expression, our observations of glucose-induced induction of COX-2 in human islets suggest that this is one route through which hyperglycemia may contribute to beta-cell dysfunction.

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    Edited by Gerard Dumancas, 01/2013; Nova Science Publishers.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with many aspects of physiological and pathological conditions, including pancreatic β -cell dysfunction. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, as a consequence of COX-2 gene induction, has been reported to impair β -cell function. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of COX-2 gene expression are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that transcription factor Elk-1 significantly upregulated COX-2 gene promoter activity. In this report, we used pancreatic β -cell line (INS-1) to explore the relationships between Elk-1 and COX-2. We first investigated the effects of Elk-1 on COX-2 transcriptional regulation and expression in INS-1 cells. We thus undertook to study the binding of Elk-1 to its putative binding sites in the COX-2 promoter. We also analysed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1 cells that overexpressed Elk-1. Our results demonstrate that Elk-1 efficiently upregulates COX-2 expression at least partly through directly binding to the -82/-69 region of COX-2 promoter. Overexpression of Elk-1 inhibits GSIS in INS-1 cells. These findings will be helpful for better understanding the transcriptional regulation of COX-2 in pancreatic β -cell. Moreover, Elk-1, the transcriptional regulator of COX-2 expression, will be a potential target for the prevention of β -cell dysfunction mediated by PGE2.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 06/2013; 2013:843462. DOI:10.1155/2013/843462 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methyl xanthine derivative, is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and renoprotective effects in diabetic patients, among other properties. We studied PTX actions and mechanisms in reducing blood biochemical parameters, in diabetic rats. For diabetes induction, alloxan was intravenously administered to male Wistar rats. One group was left untreated and the other ones treated with PTX (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), glibenclamide or metformin, as references. Forty-eight hours later and after 1-week to 3-month treatments, blood was collected for determination of glycemia, triglycerides, cholesterol, transaminases, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin. Afterwards, the animals were euthanized and pancreas, liver and kidney processed for histological analyses and immunohistochemistry assays for TNF-alpha, iNOS and COX-2. The results showed that PTX decreased glycemia and also triglyceride levels, starting 1 week after treatments, as compared to the same group before treatments. Glycemia values were brought towards normality, after 1-month treatment. PTX hypoglycemic effects were potentiated by glibenclamide but not by metformin. It also decreased fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin. Some histological and immunohistochemical alterations for TNF-alpha, iNOS and COX-2 in the diabetic pancreas were also reversed by PTX. We conclude that PTX acts similarly to glibenclamide, and its hypoglycemic actions are, partly, a consequence of ATP-sensitive K + channels inhibition. In addition, by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, PTX may be a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of diabetes and its complications.
    SpringerPlus 06/2014; 3. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-283