Glucose-induced regulation of COX-2 expression in human islets of Langerhans.

Centre for Reproduction, Endocrinology and Diabetes, King's College London, London, UK.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 7.9). 03/2004; 53 Suppl 1:S190-2. DOI: 10.2337/diabetes.53.2007.S190
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cyclo-oxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids, exists as two isoforms. In most tissues, COX-1 is a constitutive enzyme involved in prostaglandin-mediated physiological processes, whereas COX-2 is thought to be induced by inflammatory stimuli. However, it has previously been reported that COX-2 is the dominant isoform in islets and an insulin-secreting beta-cell line under basal conditions. We have investigated the relative abundance of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNAs in MIN6 cells, a mouse insulin-secreting cell line, and in primary mouse and human islets. We found that COX-2 was the dominant isoform in MIN6 cells, but that COX-1 mRNA was more abundant than that of COX-2 in freshly isolated mouse islets. Furthermore, COX-2 expression was induced by maintenance of mouse islets in culture, and experiments with human islets indicated that exposure of the islets to hyperglycemic conditions was sufficient to upregulate COX-2 mRNA levels. Given that hyperglycemia has been reported to increase human beta-cell production of interleukin-1beta and that this cytokine can induce COX-2 expression, our observations of glucose-induced induction of COX-2 in human islets suggest that this is one route through which hyperglycemia may contribute to beta-cell dysfunction.

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