Fruit and vegetable consumption and LDL cholesterol: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study

Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Evans Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 02/2004; 79(2):213-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An elevated LDL-cholesterol concentration is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and LDL has been inconsistent.
The objective was to determine whether a high intake of fruit and vegetables is inversely associated with LDL concentrations.
We used data collected from 4466 subjects in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to study the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and serum LDL. We used a food-frequency questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intakes and regression models to estimate adjusted mean LDL according to fruit and vegetable consumption.
The mean (+/-SD) age of the men (n = 2047) was 51.5 +/- 14.0 y and that of the women (n = 2419) was 52.2 +/- 13.7 y. The average daily serving of fruit and vegetables was 3.2 +/- 1.7 for men and was 3.5 +/- 1.8 for women. Fruit and vegetable consumption was inversely related to LDL: in the categories 0-1.9, 2.0-2.9, 3.0-3.9, and > or = 4 servings/d, multivariate-adjusted mean (95% CI) LDL concentrations were 3.36 (3.28, 3.44), 3.35 (3.27, 3.43), 3.26 (3.17, 3.35), and 3.17 (3.09, 3.25) mmol/L, respectively, for men (P for trend < 0.0001) and 3.35 (3.26, 3.44), 3.22 (3.14, 3.30), 3.21 (3.13, 3.29), and 3.11 (3.04, 3.18), respectively, for women (P for trend < 0.0001). This association was observed across categories of age, education, smoking status, physical activity, and tertiles of Keys score. Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease did not alter these results significantly.
Consumption of fruit and vegetables is inversely related to LDL in men and women.

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Available from: Lynn L Moore, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Guimares reported that intake of eggplant (Solanum melongena) infusion significantly reduced the blood concentrations of T-Chol, LDL-Chol, and apolipoprotein B in hypercholesterolemia subjects [2]. Futhermore, in a cohort study of 4466 subjects, Djoussé reported that consumption of fruits and vegetables is inversely related to LDL-Chol [3]. "
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    • "A lower fat intake significantly improves serum LDL levels in individuals with diabetes [44]. As well, the consumption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, among other health benefits, also lowers LDL and is cardio-protective [45,46]. Our study suggests that women were more likely to have a healthier food and nutrient profile than men with diabetes. "
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    • "Saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and excess caloric intake raise serum lowdensity-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [31]. Consumption of fruit and vegetables is inversely related to LDL-C [32] [33] [34]. "
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