Article

Fruit and vegetable consumption and LDL cholesterol: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Evans Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 02/2004; 79(2):213-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An elevated LDL-cholesterol concentration is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and LDL has been inconsistent.
The objective was to determine whether a high intake of fruit and vegetables is inversely associated with LDL concentrations.
We used data collected from 4466 subjects in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to study the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and serum LDL. We used a food-frequency questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intakes and regression models to estimate adjusted mean LDL according to fruit and vegetable consumption.
The mean (+/-SD) age of the men (n = 2047) was 51.5 +/- 14.0 y and that of the women (n = 2419) was 52.2 +/- 13.7 y. The average daily serving of fruit and vegetables was 3.2 +/- 1.7 for men and was 3.5 +/- 1.8 for women. Fruit and vegetable consumption was inversely related to LDL: in the categories 0-1.9, 2.0-2.9, 3.0-3.9, and > or = 4 servings/d, multivariate-adjusted mean (95% CI) LDL concentrations were 3.36 (3.28, 3.44), 3.35 (3.27, 3.43), 3.26 (3.17, 3.35), and 3.17 (3.09, 3.25) mmol/L, respectively, for men (P for trend < 0.0001) and 3.35 (3.26, 3.44), 3.22 (3.14, 3.30), 3.21 (3.13, 3.29), and 3.11 (3.04, 3.18), respectively, for women (P for trend < 0.0001). This association was observed across categories of age, education, smoking status, physical activity, and tertiles of Keys score. Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease did not alter these results significantly.
Consumption of fruit and vegetables is inversely related to LDL in men and women.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
122 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, the use of ready-to-eat vegetables has become important for increasing demand of consumers, but minimal processing of vegetables could imply quality loss of these products. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of harvest time and minimal processing on total antioxidant activity and the evolution of spoilage bacteria of different leaf crops (rocket salad, endive and curly endive), in order to assess food quality and safety. The evolution of total antioxidant activity and microbial population during packaging and storage was monitored through standard methods on fresh sample, at the second day of commercial life of packaging and after one week of storage at 4 0 C, several times during a year (2007). Harvest time, packaging process, and their interaction significantly (P≤0.001) affected the total antioxidant activity in all species. In curly endive and endive was observed a high decrease at the second day of commercial life of packaging (65% and 55%, respectively) while rocket salad showed the lowest reduction of total antioxidant activity (4%). Storage at 4 0 C for one week significantly affected only the total antioxidant activity of rocket salad (8% of decrement respect to the second day of commercial life of packaging) (P≤0.001). In all analyzed samples quantitative recovery of Aerobic Mesophilic Count, pseudomonas spp and fungi showed that microbial rates was reduced sensibly from whole fresh vegetables to minimally processed products of about two log units, but increased after packaging and at the end of shelf-life.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study determined the effects of cabbage juice and cabbage-mixed juices on the growth of AGS human gastric cancer cells and their anti-gastritic effects on HCl-ethanol induced gastritis in SD rats. Cabbage juice showed the highest growth inhibition on AGS gastric cancer cells in vitro (42%), compared with chlorella (20%) and kale juice (21%). However, cabbage-chlorella and cabbage-kale juice mixtures (at a 7:3 ratio) showed synergistic effects (57% and 65% inhibitory effects, respectively) on the gastric cancer cells. Inflammatory genes (iNOS, COX-2, TNF- and IL-) were significantly down-regulated in the mixed juices. Tests of DPPH radical scavenging activity and acid-neutralizing capacity with the mixed juices also showed this trend, as cabbage-chlorella and cabbage-kale mixed juices showed synergistic effects compared to cabbage juice alone. The inhibition rate of acute gastritis induced by HCl-ethanol in rats was 46% with high amounts of cabbage (CH; 800 mg/kg), 71% with high amounts of cabbage and chlorella (CChH; 800 mg/kg), 74% with high amounts of cabbage and kale (CKH; 800 mg/kg), and 75% with cimetidine (positive control) compared with the control. In addition, rates with CChH and CKH showed decreasing gastric secretions with increasing pH. These results show that cabbage juice and cabbage-mixed juices, especially with chlorella or kale, exhibit remarkable anti-gastritic effects and can be administered for a long period for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer and gastritis.
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 05/2013; 42(5). DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.5.682
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
59 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014