Article

Fruit and vegetable consumption and LDL cholesterol: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study

Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Evans Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 02/2004; 79(2):213-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An elevated LDL-cholesterol concentration is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and LDL has been inconsistent.
The objective was to determine whether a high intake of fruit and vegetables is inversely associated with LDL concentrations.
We used data collected from 4466 subjects in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to study the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and serum LDL. We used a food-frequency questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intakes and regression models to estimate adjusted mean LDL according to fruit and vegetable consumption.
The mean (+/-SD) age of the men (n = 2047) was 51.5 +/- 14.0 y and that of the women (n = 2419) was 52.2 +/- 13.7 y. The average daily serving of fruit and vegetables was 3.2 +/- 1.7 for men and was 3.5 +/- 1.8 for women. Fruit and vegetable consumption was inversely related to LDL: in the categories 0-1.9, 2.0-2.9, 3.0-3.9, and > or = 4 servings/d, multivariate-adjusted mean (95% CI) LDL concentrations were 3.36 (3.28, 3.44), 3.35 (3.27, 3.43), 3.26 (3.17, 3.35), and 3.17 (3.09, 3.25) mmol/L, respectively, for men (P for trend < 0.0001) and 3.35 (3.26, 3.44), 3.22 (3.14, 3.30), 3.21 (3.13, 3.29), and 3.11 (3.04, 3.18), respectively, for women (P for trend < 0.0001). This association was observed across categories of age, education, smoking status, physical activity, and tertiles of Keys score. Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease did not alter these results significantly.
Consumption of fruit and vegetables is inversely related to LDL in men and women.

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    • "Saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and excess caloric intake raise serum lowdensity-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [31]. Consumption of fruit and vegetables is inversely related to LDL-C [32] [33] [34]. "
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    09/2012; 2012(2090-214X):106914. DOI:10.1155/2012/106914
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    • "International organizations recommend a daily consumption of 400 g of fruit and vegetables for better wellbeing (World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF), 2007; WHO, 2008a). Higher fruit and vegetables consumption has been associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease (Djoussé et al., 2004; John and Ziebland, 2004), cancer (Riboli and Norat, 2003; Nomura et al., 2008 and stroke (He et al., 2006), and reduced mortality (Rissanen et al., 2003; Mente et al., 2009). In addition, the risk of obesity is reduced as fruit and vegetables have low energy content (WCRF, 2007). "
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    • "Other trials have broadly supported the results from DASH showing that moving dietary patterns towards a more plant-based food intake is associated with lower blood pressure. Fruit and vegetable consumption has also been associated inversely with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations in men and women, for example in crosssectional studies (Djousse et al. 2004). Subjects in the highest fruit and vegetable groups had LDL concentrations that were 6–7% lower than those in the lowest groups, an effect that the authors suggest may be attributable to dietary fibre (propionic acid derived from fermentation of fibre in the large bowel has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol). "
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