Diet during pregnancy in relation to maternal weight gain and birth size

Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 02/2004; 58(2):231-7. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601771
Source: PubMed


Maternal weight gain has been consistently linked to birth weight but, beyond maternal energy intake, no macronutrient has been associated with either of them. We have examined whether maternal energy-adjusted intake of macronutrients is associated with either maternal weight gain or birth-size parameters.
Cohort study.
University hospital in Boston, USA.
A total of 224 pregnant women coming for their first routine prenatal visit. The women were followed through delivery.
None. Pregnant women's dietary intake during the second trimester was ascertained at the 27th week of pregnancy through a food frequency questionnaire.
Intake of neither energy nor any of the energy-generating nutrients was significantly associated with birth size. In contrast, maternal weight gain by the end of the second trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with energy intake (+0.9 kg/s.d. of intake; P approximately 0.006) as well as energy-adjusted intake of protein (+3.1 kg/s.d. of intake; P<10(-4)), lipids of animal origin (+2.6 kg/s.d. of intake; P<10(-4)) and carbohydrates (-5.2 kg/s.d. of intake; P<10(-4)).
Although maternal weight gain is strongly associated with birth size, the indicated nutritional associations with weight gain are not reflected in similar associations with birth-size parameters. The pattern is reminiscent of the sequence linking diet to coronary heart disease (CHD) through cholesterol: diet has been conclusively linked to blood cholesterol levels and cholesterol levels are conclusively linked to this disease, even though the association of diet with CHD has been inconclusive and controversial.

Download full-text


Available from: Rulla M Tamimi, Jun 11, 2014
24 Reads
  • Source
    • "Although condiments are known as rich in sodium (Lin et al. 2003) and commonly low in nutritional value, the role of sodium and other components in the food are not fully identified in human pregnancy. Furthermore, there are contradictory results concerning sodium intake during pregnancy in relation to birth weight (Doyle et al. 1989; Lagiou et al. 2004; van der Maten 1995). The contributing factors and underlying mechanisms for intake of condiments and birth size are therefore remained elucidated. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal nutrition is one of the dominant factors in determining fetal growth and subsequent developmental health for both mother and child. This study aimed to explore the association between maternal consumption of food groups and birth size among singleton, termed newborns. One hundred and eight healthy pregnant women in their third trimester, aged 19 to 40 years who visited the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia completed an interviewed-administered, validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The maternal socio-demographic, medical and obstetric histories and anthropometry measurements were recorded accordingly. The pregnancy outcomes, birth weight, birth length and head circumference were obtained from the medical records. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression by controlling for possible confounders. Among all food groups, fruits intake was associated with higher birth weight (p=0.018). None of the food intake showed evident association with respect to birth length while only fruits intake was associated positively with head circumference (p=0.019). In contrast, confectioneries and condiments were associated with lower birth weight (p=0.013 and p=0.001, respectively). Also, condiments appeared to associate inversely with ponderal index (p=0.015). These findings suggest the potential beneficial effects of micronutrient rich food but detrimental effects of high sugar and sodium food on fetal growth. Such an effect may have long term health consequences to the lives of children.
    Sains Malaysiana 11/2013; 42(11):1633-1640. · 0.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "maternal pre-pregnant BMI and gestational weight gain, which are both related to maternal dietary behavior and infant growth measures. Birthweight is highly correlated with gestational weight gain (30–32). A study from Iceland identified milk intake among predictors of optimal and also excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but since associations with birth outcome were only considered for weight gain and not milk intake per se, it was not included in the current systematic review (20). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is increasingly acknowledged that the maternal diet influences fetal development and health of the child. Milk and milk products contribute essential nutrients and bioactive substances; they are of ample supply and have a long tradition in Nordic countries. To revise and update dietary guidelines for pregnant women valid in Nordic countries, the Pregnancy and Lactation expert group within the NNR5 project identified a need to systematically review recent scientific data on infant growth measures and maternal milk consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy on fetal growth through a systematic review of studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. A literature search was run in June 2011. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 495 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. A complementary search in January 2012 revealed 64 additional abstracts published during the period June to December 2011, among them one study of interest previously identified. Of the 33 studies extracted, eight were relevant research papers. Five were prospective cohort studies (including a retrospective chart review), one was a case-control study, and two were retrospective cohort studies. For fetal length or infant birth length, three studies reported no association and two reported positive associations with milk or dairy consumption. For birthweight related outcomes, two studies reported no associations, and four studies reported positive associations with milk and/or dairy consumption. There was large heterogeneity in exposure range and effect size between studies. A beneficial fetal growth-increase was most pronounced for increasing maternal milk intake in the lower end of the consumption range. Evidence from prospective cohort studies is limited but suggestive that moderate milk consumption relative to none or very low intake, is positively associated with fetal growth and infant birthweight in healthy, Western populations.
    Food & Nutrition Research 11/2012; 56. DOI:10.3402/fnr.v56i0.20050 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In fact, one study noted that history of physical IPV increases the risk of inadequate prenatal weight gain threefold.139 Additionally, many studies have identified an association between inadequate pregnancy weight gain or poor nutrition and adverse outcomes, including LBW.140–142 A recent study found that the relation between pregnancy IPV and infant birth weight was completely mediated by poor pregnancy weight gain,143 and others have supported this contention.144 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Pregnancy IPV is a significant problem worldwide, with rates varying significantly by country and maternal risk factors. Pregnancy IPV is associated with adverse newborn outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. Many mechanisms for how IPV may impact birth outcomes have been proposed and include direct health, mental health, and behavioral effects, which all may interact. Screening for IPV during pregnancy is essential, yet due to time constraints and few clear recommendations for assessment, many prenatal providers do not routinely inquire about IPV, or even believe they should. More training is needed to assist health care providers in identifying and managing pregnancy IPV, with additional research needed to inform effective interventions to reduce the rates of pregnancy IPV and resultant outcomes.
    International Journal of Women's Health 08/2010; 2(1):183-97. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S8632
Show more