Diet during pregnancy in relation to maternal weight gain and birth size

Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 02/2004; 58(2):231-7. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601771
Source: PubMed


Maternal weight gain has been consistently linked to birth weight but, beyond maternal energy intake, no macronutrient has been associated with either of them. We have examined whether maternal energy-adjusted intake of macronutrients is associated with either maternal weight gain or birth-size parameters.
Cohort study.
University hospital in Boston, USA.
A total of 224 pregnant women coming for their first routine prenatal visit. The women were followed through delivery.
None. Pregnant women's dietary intake during the second trimester was ascertained at the 27th week of pregnancy through a food frequency questionnaire.
Intake of neither energy nor any of the energy-generating nutrients was significantly associated with birth size. In contrast, maternal weight gain by the end of the second trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with energy intake (+0.9 kg/s.d. of intake; P approximately 0.006) as well as energy-adjusted intake of protein (+3.1 kg/s.d. of intake; P<10(-4)), lipids of animal origin (+2.6 kg/s.d. of intake; P<10(-4)) and carbohydrates (-5.2 kg/s.d. of intake; P<10(-4)).
Although maternal weight gain is strongly associated with birth size, the indicated nutritional associations with weight gain are not reflected in similar associations with birth-size parameters. The pattern is reminiscent of the sequence linking diet to coronary heart disease (CHD) through cholesterol: diet has been conclusively linked to blood cholesterol levels and cholesterol levels are conclusively linked to this disease, even though the association of diet with CHD has been inconclusive and controversial.

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Available from: Rulla M Tamimi, Jun 11, 2014
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    • "Although condiments are known as rich in sodium (Lin et al. 2003) and commonly low in nutritional value, the role of sodium and other components in the food are not fully identified in human pregnancy. Furthermore, there are contradictory results concerning sodium intake during pregnancy in relation to birth weight (Doyle et al. 1989; Lagiou et al. 2004; van der Maten 1995). The contributing factors and underlying mechanisms for intake of condiments and birth size are therefore remained elucidated. "
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    • "maternal pre-pregnant BMI and gestational weight gain, which are both related to maternal dietary behavior and infant growth measures. Birthweight is highly correlated with gestational weight gain (30–32). A study from Iceland identified milk intake among predictors of optimal and also excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but since associations with birth outcome were only considered for weight gain and not milk intake per se, it was not included in the current systematic review (20). "
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    • "In fact, one study noted that history of physical IPV increases the risk of inadequate prenatal weight gain threefold.139 Additionally, many studies have identified an association between inadequate pregnancy weight gain or poor nutrition and adverse outcomes, including LBW.140–142 A recent study found that the relation between pregnancy IPV and infant birth weight was completely mediated by poor pregnancy weight gain,143 and others have supported this contention.144 "
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