PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.
ABSTRACT Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs to black-footed and Laysan albatrosses of the North Pacific Ocean may be suspected from TEQ levels.
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ABSTRACT: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in albatrosses and petrels collected off southern Brazil were compared with concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (OCs). δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, as well as OCs concentrations, exhibited a high degree of variability among individuals and overlap among species. δ(13)C values reflected latitudinal differences among species, with lower values found in Wandering and Tristan Albatrosses and higher values found in Black-browed and Atlantic Yellow-nosed Albatrosses and White-chinned Petrels. Some relationships were found between OCs and stable isotopes, but in general a partial 'uncoupling' was observed between OCs concentrations and stable isotopes ratios (especially for δ(15)N). δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in Procellariiformes tissues during the non-breeding season appear to be a better indicator of foraging habitats than of trophic relationships, which may partially explain the high degree of variability between concentrations of OCs and stable isotopes ratios in birds with a diversified diet and wide foraging range.Marine Pollution Bulletin 04/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations were measured in seabirds from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Species, Great Egret and Manx Shearwater, were collected in 2008-2010 on Ilha Grande bay. Detectable hepatic concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were found in all samples analyzed. The concentrations were below the range of concern established by WHO. This is the first measurements of PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners in seabirds from this area, and suggests that future studies should take note of the results in order to test for a greater range of compoundsand species and to determine levels of environmental contamination.Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada. 03/2012; 12(1):7-15.
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ABSTRACT: Relationships between persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and age in wildlife biomonitoring are often interpreted as changes in contaminant burden as organisms age. However cross-sectional body burden-age trends (CBATs) obtained from biomonitoring studies, which sample individuals of different age at the same time, should not be confused with longitudinal body burden-age trends (LBATs) obtained by sampling the same individuals repeatedly through time. To clarify how CBATs and LBATs for wildlife species deviate from each other, and describe any impact of lifespan and sex, we used mechanistic bioaccumulation models to estimate historic longitudinal exposures of polar cod, ringed seals, beluga whales, and bowhead whales to polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153. CBATs were then produced by "sampling" resultant LBATs of successive birth cohorts at specific timepoints. As found previously for humans, the year of sampling relative to the year of peak environmental contamination was a critical parameter in determining male CBAT shapes. However, a similar cohort effect was not apparent for reproductive females because efficient POP loss through lactation prevented their lipids from retaining a "memory" of past exposure levels. Thus, lactation loss was not only responsible for the large differences between the CBATs of males and females of the same species, but also the lack of female CBAT variability through time. CBAT shapes varied little between species by lifespan, as long as equivalent age scales were used. However, lifespan relative to the timescale of environmental contaminant level changes did determine the extent to which CBATs resembled LBATs for males. We suggest that accounting for birth cohort and sex effects is essential when interpreting age trends in POP biomonitoring studies of long-lived species. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 03/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor