Seeding specificity in amyloid growth induced by heterologous fibrils.
ABSTRACT Over residues 15-36, which comprise the H-bonded core of the amyloid fibrils it forms, the Alzheimer's disease plaque peptide amyloid beta (Abeta) possesses a very similar sequence to that of another short, amyloidogenic peptide, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Using elongation rates to quantify seeding efficiency, we inquired into the relationship between primary sequence similarity and seeding efficiency between Abeta-(1-40) and amyloid fibrils produced from IAPP as well as other proteins. In both a solution phase and a microtiter plate elongation assay, IAPP fibrils are poor seeds for Abeta-(1-40) elongation, exhibiting weight-normalized efficiencies of only 1-2% compared with Abeta-(1-40) fibrils. Amyloid fibrils of peptides with sequences completely unrelated to Abeta also exhibit poor to negligible seeding ability for Abeta elongation. Fibrils from a number of point mutants of Abeta-(1-40) exhibit intermediate seeding abilities for wild-type Abeta elongation, with differing efficiencies depending on whether or not the mutation is in the amyloid core region. The results suggest that amyloid fibrils from different proteins exhibit structural differences that control seeding efficiencies. Preliminary results also suggest that identical sequences can grow into different conformations of amyloid fibrils as detected by seeding efficiencies. The results have a number of implications for amyloid structure and biology.
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ABSTRACT: Intracerebral injection of brain extracts containing amyloid or tau aggregates in transgenic animals can induce cerebral amyloidosis and tau pathology. We extracted pure populations of tau oligomers directly from the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. These oligomers are potent inhibitors of long term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal brain slices and disrupt memory in wild type mice. We observed for the first time that these authentic brain-derived tau oligomers propagate abnormal tau conformation of endogenous murine tau after prolonged incubation. The conformation and hydrophobicity of tau oligomers play a critical role in the initiation and spread of tau pathology in the nave host in a manner reminiscent of sporadic AD.Scientific Reports 01/2012;
Article: Non-esterified fatty acids generate distinct low-molecular weight amyloid-β (Aβ42) oligomers along pathway different from fibril formation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregation is known to play a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among various aggregates, low-molecular weight soluble oligomers of Aβ are increasingly believed to be the primary neurotoxic agents responsible for memory impairment. Anionic interfaces are known to influence the Aβ aggregation process significantly. Here, we report the effects of interfaces formed by medium-chain (C9-C12), saturated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) on Aβ42 aggregation. NEFAs uniquely affected Aβ42 aggregation rates that depended on both the ratio of Aβ:NEFA as well the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the NEFAs. More importantly, irrespective of the kind of NEFA used, we observed that two distinct oligomers, 12-18 mers and 4-5 mers were formed via different pathway of aggregation under specific experimental conditions: (i) 12-18 mers were generated near the CMC in which NEFAs augment the rate of Aβ42 aggregation towards fibril formation, and, (ii) 4-5 mers were formed above the CMC, where NEFAs inhibit fibril formation. The data indicated that both 12-18 mers and 4-5 mers are formed along an alternate pathway called 'off-pathway' that did not result in fibril formation and yet have subtle structural and morphological differences that distinguish their bulk molecular behavior. These observations, (i) reflect the possible mechanism of Aβ aggregation in physiological lipid-rich environments, and (ii) reiterate the fact that all oligomeric forms of Aβ need not be obligatory intermediates of the fibril formation pathway.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e18759. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: CDK5 is essential for soluble amyloid β-induced degradation of GKAP and remodeling of the synaptic actin cytoskeleton.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The early stages of Alzheimer's disease are marked by synaptic dysfunction and loss. This process results from the disassembly and degradation of synaptic components, in particular of scaffolding proteins that compose the post-synaptic density (PSD), namely PSD95, Homer and Shank. Here we investigated in rat frontal cortex dissociated culture the mechanisms involved in the downregulation of GKAP (SAPAP1), which links the PSD95 complex to the Shank complex and cytoskeletal structures within the PSD. We show that Aβ causes the rapid loss of GKAP from synapses through a pathway that critically requires cdk5 activity, and is set in motion by NMDAR activity and Ca(2+) influx. We show that GKAP is a direct substrate of cdk5 and that its phosphorylation results in polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of GKAP and remodeling (collapse) of the synaptic actin cytoskeleton; the latter effect is abolished in neurons expressing GKAP mutants that are resistant to phosphorylation by cdk5. Given that cdk5 also regulates degradation of PSD95, these results underscore the central position of cdk5 in mediating Aβ-induced PSD disassembly and synapse loss.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e23097. · 4.09 Impact Factor