Metabolic and mitogenic effects of IGF-I and insulin on muscle cells of rainbow trout.
ABSTRACT The relative function of IGF-I and insulin on fish muscle metabolism and growth has been investigated by the isolation and culture at different stages (myoblasts at day 1, myocytes at day 4, and myotubes at day 10) of rainbow trout muscle cells. This in vitro model avoids interactions with endogenous peptides, which could interfere with the muscle response. In these cells, the effects of IGF-I and insulin on cell proliferation, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), and l-alanine uptake at different development stages, and the use of inhibitors were studied and quantified. Insulin (10-1,000 nM) and IGF-I (10-100 nM) stimulated 2-DG uptake in trout myocytes at day 4 in a similar manner (maximum of 124% for insulin and of 142% for IGF-I), and this stimulation increased when cells differentiated to myotubes (maximum for IGF-I of 193%). When incubating the cells with PD-98059 and especially cytochalasin B, a reduction in 2-DG uptake was observed, suggesting that glucose transport takes place through specific facilitative transporters. IGF-I (1-100 nM) stimulated the l-alanine uptake in myocytes at day 4 (maximum of 239%), reaching higher values of stimulation than insulin (100-1,000 nM) (maximum of 160%). This stimulation decreased when cells developed to myotubes at day 10 (118% for IGF-I and 114% for insulin). IGF-I (0.125-25 nM) had a significant effect on myoblast proliferation, measured by thymidine incorporation (maximum of 170%), and required the presence of 2-5% fetal serum (FBS) to promote thymidine uptake. On the other hand, insulin was totally ineffective in stimulating thymidine uptake. We conclude that IGF-I is more effective than insulin in stimulating glucose and alanine uptake in rainbow trout myosatellite cells and that the degree of stimulation changes when cells differentiate to myotubes. IGF-I stimulates cell proliferation in this model of muscle in vitro and insulin does not. These results indicate the important role of IGF-I on growth and metabolism of fish muscle.
Article: American Physiological SocietyAJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 01/2008; 16(295). · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I signaling pathways in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during adipogenesis and their implication in glucose uptake.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Primary cultures of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) adipocytes were used to examine the main signaling pathways of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during adipogenesis. We first determined the presence of IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) and insulin receptors (IR) in trout preadipocytes (day 5) and adipocytes (day 14). IGF-IRs were more abundant and appeared to be in higher levels in differentiated cells than in preadipocytes, whereas IRs were detected in lower but constant levels throughout the culture. The cells were immunoreactive against ERK1/2 MAPK, and AKT/PI3K, components of the two main signal transduction pathways for insulin and IGF-I receptors. Stimulation of MAPK phosphorylation by IGF-I was higher in preadipocytes than in adipocytes, while no effects were observed in MAPK phosphorylation after incubation of cells with insulin. AKT phosphorylation increased in the presence of both insulin and IGF-I, with higher levels of stimulation in adipocytes than in preadipocytes. Activation of both pathways was blocked by the use of specific inhibitors of MAPK (PD98059) and AKT (wortmannin). We describe here, for the first time, the effects of IGF-I and insulin on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in primary culture of trout adipocytes. IGF-I was more potent in stimulating glucose uptake than insulin, and PD98059 and wortmannin inhibited the stimulation of glucose uptake by this growth factor, suggesting that IGF-I plays an important metabolic role in trout adipocytes. Our results suggest that differential activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways are involved in the IGF-I- and insulin-induced effects of trout adipocytes during the various stages of adipogenesis.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 03/2010; 299(1):R33-41. · 3.34 Impact Factor
Article: IGF-I/PI3K/Akt and IGF-I/MAPK/ERK pathways in vivo in skeletal muscle are regulated by nutrition and contribute to somatic growth in the fine flounder.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates, promoting mitogenic and anabolic effects through the activation of the MAPK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Nutrition also affects skeletal muscle growth, activating intracellular pathways and inducing protein synthesis and accretion. Thus, both hormonal and nutritional signaling regulate muscle mass. In this context, plasma IGF-I levels and the activation of both pathways in response to food were evaluated in the fine flounder using fasting and refeeding trials. The present study describes for the first time in a nonmammalian species that the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are activated by exogenous circulating IGF-I, as well as showing that the MAPK/ERK pathway activation is modulated by the nutritional status. Also, these results show that there is a time-dependent regulation of IGF-I plasma levels and its signaling pathways in muscle. Together, these results suggest that the nutritionally managed IGF-I could be regulating the activation of the MAPK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways differentially according to the nutritional status, triggering different effects in growth parameters and therefore contributing to somatic growth in fish. This study contributes to the understanding of the nutrient regulation of IGF-I and its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle growth in nonmammalian species, therefore providing insight concerning the events controlling somatic growth in vertebrates.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 03/2011; 300(6):R1532-42. · 3.34 Impact Factor