Relative and absolute neutropenia is frequently seen in the healthy adult Kuwaiti Arab population. Fluorescent monoclonal antibody labelling followed by flow cytometry was used to determine the lymphocyte subsets in 48 normal healthy individuals in the Kuwaiti adult population (24 males and 24 females, age 17-59 years) with relative or absolute neutropenia, and this was compared to age-matched controls (64 males and 63 females). The mean haemoglobin levels were 13.6+/-1.5 and 13.7+/-1.5 g/dl in the neutropenic and control groups, respectively. White blood cell counts, absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in neutropenic individuals with the corresponding reference range, taken from the control subjects (in parenthesis) were: WBC, 6.7+/-1.6 x 10(9)/l (4-10.4 x 10(9)/l), neutrophils, 2.7+/-0.8 x 10(9)/l (1.87-6.63 x 10(9)/l), lymphocytes, 3.3+/-0.9 x 10(9)/l (1.4-3.62 x 10(9)/l). Absolute values of lymphocytes, CD2+, CD3+, CD19+, CD4+, CD8+, HLADR+ and CD45RA+ cells were significantly higher in the neutropenic group. The range of values with the corresponding reference ranges, in parenthesis, were: CD2+, 1.61-4.30 x 10(9)/l (0.95-2.99 x 10(9)/l), CD3+, 1.37-4.16 x 10(9)/l (0.83-2.71 x 10(9)/l), CD19+, 0.16-1.09 x 10(9)/l (0.05-0.61 x 10(9)/l), CD4+, 0.70-2.89 x 10(9)/l (0.45-1.65 x 10(9)/l), CD8+, 0.57-1.80 x 10(9)/l (0.29-1.17 x 10(9)/l), HLADR+ 0.27-1.74 x 10(9)/l (0.02-0.62 x 10(9)/l), CD45RA, 0.90-4.63 x 10(9)/l (0.34-2.05 x 10(9)/l), respectively. The levels of natural killer cells, CD56+ cells were significantly lower compared to controls while the values of memory T lymphocytes, CD45RO+ were comparable to controls. These results indicate that difference in the leukocyte subpopulations may also be indicative of differences in the lymphocyte subpopulations and that reference ranges for these cell types in healthy neutropenic and non-neutropenic individuals should be established.
"In Arabs, the reference range for neutrophil count has not been established; therefore, the prevalence of BN is unknown. Some reports suggest that Arabs also may have a lower neutrophil count when compared to people of European descent [10-12]. Arabs comprise of approximately 300 million people from 29 countries; they often live in tribal groups and practice endogamy, a custom that could alter the prevalence of genetic conditions like BN. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign neutropenia, i.e., neutropenia not associated with an increased risk of infection, may result in serious medical consequences when a 'standard' definition of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1.5 x 10(9)cells/L) is universally applied to all races. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of benign neutropenia among healthy Arabs and evaluate its mode of inheritance.
ANCs were studied prospectively amongst a healthy indigenous population (n = 1032) from the United Arab Emirates undergoing a nation-wide sickle-cell and thalassemia screening program. The mean neutrophil count and the prevalence of benign neutropenia were compared by age, sex and amongst various tribes.
The mean neutrophil count (x 10(9)cells/L) was 3.3 (range 0.95-7.6). Benign neutropenia was present in 110 (10.7%) subjects of whom 24 (2.3%) individuals had moderate neutropenia (ANC 0.5 - 1.0 x 10(9) cells/L). In the 22 tribe-family groups, the prevalence of benign neutropenia varied between 0% and 38%. Benign neutropenia showed no difference in the frequency amongst the sexes (p = 0.23) and it was independent of age (Spearman's rho = 0.05, p = 0.13). The age-related mean neutrophil count was the lowest in Arabs when compared with other ethnic groups (Blacks, Europeans and Mexicans). The inheritance of benign neutropenia was consistent with an autosomal dominant pattern; however, the diversity of observed phenotypes suggested the presence of more than one genetic variant for this trait.
Arabs have a high prevalence of benign neutropenia that may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study that involved secondary analysis of data collected from 681 pregnant women and 183 miners (94 men and 89 women; ratio of men to women, 1:0.95) in Jos, Nigeria, was carried out to determine the reference ranges for CD4(+)-cell counts in healthy HIV-negative adult Nigerians. The main results of interest were CD4(+)-cell counts and odds ratios (ORs) of low CD4(+)-cell counts, defined as below 350 cells per microl. CD4(+)-cell counts were similar in men and nonpregnant women, with a mean (standard deviation) of 828 (203) cells per microl, but pregnant women had a lower value of 771 (250) cells per microl. None of the factors assessed was related to the odds of having a low CD4(+)-cell count among men and nonpregnant women, but age, age of marriage, and alcohol usage were significant predictors in pregnant women. Compared to pregnant women less than 20 years old, older women had significantly lower odds of a low CD4(+)-cell count (ORs were 0.06 for women aged 20 to 29 years and 0.22 for those aged 30 to 39 years). When compared with those pregnant women who were married before 20 years of age, those who married at 20 to 29 years and 30 to 39 years had odds ratios of 6.41 and 9.40, respectively. Previous alcohol use was also associated with low CD4(+)-cell counts (OR, 5.15). The 95% confidence interval for CD4(+)-cell counts in healthy adult Nigerians is 547 to 1,327 cells per microl, and this is the first time this has been determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Clozapine has shown superior efficacy over other antipsychotics. However, its use is complicated by the development of life-threatening hematologic adverse effects. Objectives This paper reports the incidence of clozapine-induced hematologic toxicity in Saudi Arab patients. Setting King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods Medical data of Saudi Arab hospitalized patients receiving clozapine was retrospectively reviewed during the period between August 2009 and August 2012. White blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were recorded in a specific form to watch for any hematologic toxicity. The hematologic toxicities included in this report are: eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, and agranulocytosis/neutropenia/leukopenia combined. Main outcome measure Complete WBC count. Results During the study period 147 charts were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 38 ± 11.42 years and 52 % were males. During the study period 61 patients (42 %) developed 82 blood dyscrasias. Sixteen patients (10.9 %) developed agranulocytosis, neutropenia and leukopenia combined, while nineteen patients (12.9 %) developed lymphocytopenia, and seven patients (4.8 %) developed thrombocytopenia. Eosinophilia developed in 40 patients (27.2 %). During the first 18 weeks of therapy with clozapine, 21 (26 %) hematologic side effects were developed. Conclusion The data collected in this study does appear to indicate there may be an increased incidence of blood dyscrasias in Saudi Arabs which warrants further, more detailed, study. It would be of concern to psychiatric clinicians if the case of a genetic predisposition to clozapine-induced blood dyscrasias were proven in the future.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 06/2014; 36(4). DOI:10.1007/s11096-014-9967-0 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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