Role of reactive oxygen species in LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 in microglia.
ABSTRACT We determined the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. LPS treatment increased intracellular ROS in rat microglia dose-dependently. Pre-treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase, or SOD/catalase mimetics that can scavenge intracellular ROS, significantly attenuated LPS-induced release in PGE2. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), a non-specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor, decreased LPS-induced PGE2 production. In addition, microglia from NADPH oxidase-deficient mice produced less PGE2 than those from wild-type mice following LPS treatment. Furthermore, LPS-stimulated expression of COX-2 (determined by RT-PCR analysis of COX-2 mRNA and western blot for its protein) was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with SOD/catalase or SOD/catalase mimetics. SOD/catalase mimetics were more potent than SOD/catalase in reducing COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. As a comparison, scavenging ROS had no effect on LPS-induced nitric oxide production in microglia. These results suggest that ROS play a regulatory role in the expression of COX-2 and the subsequent production of PGE2 during the activation process of microglia. Thus, inhibiting NADPH oxidase activity and subsequent ROS generation in microglia can reduce COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic intervention strategy for the treatment of inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
Article: Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Degenerative retinal diseases are characterized by inflammation and microglial activation. The nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), is an anti-inflammatory in models of diabetes and glaucoma. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that retinal inflammation and microglia activation are initiated and sustained by oxidative stress and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and that CBD reduces inflammation by blocking these processes. Microglial cells were isolated from retinas of newborn rats. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels were estimated with ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) was determined with a NO analyzer. Superoxide anion levels were determined by the chemiluminescence of luminol derivative. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by measuring the cellular oxidation products of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. In retinal microglial cells, treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced immediate NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. This was followed by p38 MAPK activation and resulted in a time-dependent increase in TNF-alpha production. At a later phase, LPS induced NO, ROS, and p38 MAPK activation that peaked at 2-6 h and was accompanied by morphological change of microglia. Treatment with 1 microM CBD inhibited ROS formation and p38 MAPK activation, NO and TNF-alpha formation, and maintained cell morphology. In addition, LPS-treated rat retinas showed an accumulation of macrophages and activated microglia, significant levels of ROS and nitrotyrosine, activation of p38 MAPK, and neuronal apoptosis. These effects were blocked by treatment with 5 mg/kg CBD. Retinal inflammation and degeneration in uveitis are caused by oxidative stress. CBD exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by a mechanism that involves blocking oxidative stress and activation of p38 MAPK and microglia.Molecular vision 02/2008; 14:2190-203. · 2.20 Impact Factor
Article: Neuroinflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide is exacerbated in mice genetically deficient in cyclooxygenase-2.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenases (COX) -1 and -2 are key mediators of the inflammatory response in the central nervous system. Since COX-2 is inducible by inflammatory stimuli, it has been traditionally considered as the most appropriate target for anti-inflammatory drugs. However, the specific roles of COX-1 and COX-2 in modulating a neuroinflammatory response are unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that COX-1 deficient mice show decreased neuroinflammatory response and neuronal damage in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we investigated the role of COX-2 in the neuroinflammatory response to intracerebroventricular-injected LPS (5 mug), a model of direct activation of innate immunity, using COX-2 deficient (COX-2-/-) and wild type (COX-2+/+) mice, as well as COX-2+/+ mice pretreated for 6 weeks with celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor. Twenty-four hours after LPS injection, COX-2-/- mice showed increased neuronal damage, glial cell activation, mRNA and protein expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, such as cytokines, chemokines, iNOS and NADPH oxidase. Brain protein levels of IL-1beta, NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox, and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were higher in COX-2-/- and in celecoxib-treated mice, compared to COX-2+/+ mice. The increased neuroinflammatory response in COX-2-/- mice was likely mediated by the upregulation of STAT3 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). These results show that inhibiting COX-2 activity can exacerbate the inflammatory response to LPS, possibly by increasing glial cells activation and upregulating the STAT3 and SOCS3 pathways in the brain.Journal of Neuroinflammation 02/2008; 5:17. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Synergystic induction of HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity by hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide in macrophages.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is activated by a variety of stimuli, including inflammatory mediators. In this report we investigated the role that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hypoxia play in the regulation of HIF-1-dependent gene expression in macrophages. We report that murine macrophages stimulated with low concentrations of LPS (1-10 ng/ml) expressed significantly higher levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA when cultured under hypoxic compared to normoxic conditions. Functional studies of the iNOS promoter demonstrated that the synergistic interaction between LPS and hypoxia was mediated, at least in part, by the NFkappaB and the HIF-1 binding sites. In addition, transient transfection experiments using a Hypoxia Response Element (HRE)-containing plasmid showed that LPS and hypoxia synergistically induced HIF-1-dependent transcriptional activity. Interestingly, LPS did not significantly affect HIF-1alpha protein levels or HIF-1 DNA binding activity relative to hypoxic induction. HIF-1alpha, but not HIF-2alpha, was critical for the synergistic induction of HRE-dependent transcriptional activity in macrophages, as indicated by experiments using siRNA targeting HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha. Addition of ROS-scavengers completely abrogated the synergistic induction of HIF-1 transcriptional activity by LPS and hypoxia, but neither inhibited HIF-1 transcriptional activity induced by hypoxia alone nor affected HIF-1alpha protein levels or HIF-1 DNA binding induced by hypoxia alone or hypoxia plus LPS. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LPS and hypoxia act synergistically to induce HIF-1alpha-transcriptional activity and they emphasize the existence of a cross talk between hypoxic and non-hypoxic signaling pathways in the regulation of macrophages gene expression.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 02/2008; 7(2):232-41. · 5.36 Impact Factor