Dynamics of an enzymatic substitution reaction in haloalkane dehalogenase
ABSTRACT Reactive flux molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out using a combined QM/MM potential to study the dynamics of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of dichloroethane by a carboxylate group in haloalkane dehalogenase and in water. We found that protein dynamics accelerates the reaction rate by a factor of 2 over the uncatalyzed reaction. Compared to the thermodynamic effect in barrier reduction, protein dynamic contribution is relatively small. However, analyses of the friction kernel reveal that the origins of the reaction dynamics in water and in the enzyme are different. In aqueous solution, there is significant electrostatic solvation effect, which is reflected by the slow reorganization relaxation of the solvent. On the other hand, there is no strong electrostatic coupling in the enzyme and the major effect on reaction coordinate motion is intramolecular energy relaxation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mireia Garcia-Viloca, May 08, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Lately, there has been great interest in performing free-energy perturbation (FEP) at the combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) level, e.g. for enzyme reactions. Such calculations require extensive sampling of phase space, which typically is prohibitive with density-functional theory or ab initio methods. Therefore, such calculations have mostly been performed with semiempirical QM (SQM) methods, or by using a thermodynamic cycle involving sampling at the MM level and perturbations between the MM and QM/MM levels of theory. However, the latter perturbations typically have convergence problems, unless the QM system is kept fixed during the simulations, because the MM and QM/MM descriptions of the internal degrees of freedom inside the QM system are too dissimilar. We have studied whether the convergence of the MM → QM/MM perturbation can be improved by using a thoroughly parameterised force field or by using SQM/MM methods. As a test case we use the first half-reaction of haloalkane dehalogenase and the QM calculations are performed with the PBE, B3LYP, and TPSSH density-functional methods. We show that the convergence can be improved with a tailored force field, but only locally around the parameterised state. Simulations based on SQM/MM methods using the MNDO, AM1, PM3, RM1, PDDG-MNDO, and PDDG-PM3 Hamiltonians have slightly better convergence properties, but very long simulations are still needed (~10 ns) and convergence is obtained only if electrostatic interactions between the QM system and the surroundings are ignored. This casts some doubts on the common practice to base QM/MM FEPs on semiempirical simulations without any reweighting of the trajectories.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 07/2012; 14(36):12592-604. DOI:10.1039/c2cp41005b · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Determining the free energies and mechanisms of chemical reactions in solution and enzymes is a major challenge. For such complex reaction processes, combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method is the most effective simulation method to provide an accurate and efficient theoretical description of the molecular system. The computational costs of ab initio QM methods, however, have limited the application of ab initio QM/MM methods. Recent advances in ab initio QM/MM methods allowed the accurate simulation of the free energies for reactions in solution and in enzymes and thus paved the way for broader application of the ab initio QM/MM methods. We review here the theoretical developments and applications of the ab initio QM/MM methods, focusing on the determination of reaction path and the free energies of the reaction processes in solution and enzymes.Journal of Molecular Structure THEOCHEM 03/2009; 898(1-3):17-30. DOI:10.1016/j.theochem.2008.12.025 · 1.37 Impact Factor