Normal values for thyroid ultrasonography, goiter prevalence and urinary iodine concentration in schoolchildren of the Veneto Region, Italy.
ABSTRACT Goiter prevalence in school-age children and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) are the main indicators of iodine deficiency in a population. In areas of mild iodine deficiency, where goiters are small, ultrasound is preferable to physical examination to estimate goiter prevalence. The World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted thyroid volume ultrasonography results from a survey of European schoolchildren as an international reference, but these values have recently been questioned. The aims of the study were: a) to determine regional normal echographic reference values of thyroid volume in children aged between 11 and 14 yr in the Veneto Region, in North-East Italy; b) to determine goiter prevalence by physical and ultrasonographic examination; c) to determine UIC in this section of the population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1730 schoolchildren, aged between 11 and 14, living in towns in low-lying areas, in the valleys of the pre-Alps and in the mountains between 600 and 1200 m. Thyroid volume was evaluated by inspection and palpation using the WHO criteria. In 560 children thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound. UIC was measured in 1368 children. On physical examination a grade I goiter was found in 7.5% of children. No goiter grade II or grade III was found. The regional thyroid volume reference values by ultrasonography were similar, or slightly lower (5-20%), to the corresponding WHO reference values. Mean UIC was 148 +/- 110 microg/l, with no difference between lowlands and uplands; UIC values less than 100 microg/l were found in about 30-35% of the children. UIC was higher in children using iodized salt than in non-users. No correlation was found between thyroid volume by ultrasonography and UIC. Thyroid volume was found to be bigger in upland children than in those in low-lying areas, probably because of low iodine intake in people living in the mountains in previous generations. This data show that Veneto is not a iodine-deficient area, with no presence of endemic goiter. However, the great number of children with a UIC of less than 100 microg/l also suggests the use of iodized salt in the Veneto Region.
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ABSTRACT: A study was conducted on iodine status during pregnancy and its dependence on dietary habits, racial and geographical origin, and time since arrival in Italy. We enrolled 322 consecutive pregnant women: 217 Italians, 62 Eastern Europeans and 43 from Northern and Central Africa. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire on their dietary habits. The urinary iodide concentration (UIC) was determined in spot morning urine samples. In the group as a whole, the median UIC was 83 microg/l; the UIC was < 50 in 33% and of 150 microg/l or more in 27%; it was significantly lower in Africans and Eastern Europeans than in Italians (medians 45 and 46 vs. 100 microg/l, respectively, P = 0.005). For the foreign women, there was a significant correlation between UIC and time since arrival in Italy (r = 0.22, P = 0.02). A significant link emerged between UIC and cow's milk intake (P = 0.0001). Iodine supplements were used by 40% of the women, and UIC were higher in those who did so than in those who did not (median 103 vs. 75 microg/l, P = 0.03), particularly if the latter did not drink milk (median 98 vs. 42 microg/l, P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that milk was the only variable influencing UIC (OR 1.29, P = 0.0005). (i) Iodine levels are too low among pregnant women in our region, and particularly in foreign women. (ii) Cow's milk intake is their main source of iodine. (iii) Iodine supplementation is mandatory during pregnancy, particularly for women do not drink milk.Clinical Endocrinology 10/2008; 70(5):776-80. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the interaction of and association between frequency of goitre detected by palpation, nutritional status evaluated by anthropometric indices and socio-economic status in school-aged children. One thousand and eighteen prepubertal and pubertal children (aged 6-14 years) attending primary schools in an urban area were included in this study. All subjects were evaluated for the presence of goitre and nutritional status. Thyroid size was assessed using the World Health Organization's (WHO) palpation system (1960). Severity of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) was based on WHO criteria. Children were grouped into four categories of socio-economic status. Eight per cent of children were detected to have goitre by palpation. Body mass index and weight-for-height were significantly lower in children who had palpable goitre than in children who did not have goitre (P<0.05). Frequencies of having palpable goitre and being stunted and underweight were especially higher in children with very low socio-economic status (P=0.016, 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Frequency of being stunted, underweight and wasted in children with palpable goitre did not change significantly according to socio-economic status (P>0.05). In logistic regression analyses, the most important factor in detection of palpable goitre was socio-economic status (B=0.517, P=0.004). Fathers' education and occupation were found to be most significant (P=0.031 and 0.020, respectively). Children detected to have palpable goitre were thinner. However, nutritional disorders were not more frequent among children with palpable goitre compared with children without goitre. Goitre and nutritional deficiencies were more common in children with lower socio-economic status but the frequency of nutritional disorders in children with palpable goitre did not change according to socio-economic status.Public Health Nutrition 01/2007; 9(8):1001-6. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iodine deficiency is defined by the goiter and the urinary iodine concentration. However, a lack of local thyroid volume reference data resulted in the vague definition of goiter, especially in school-aged children. The aim of this paper was to determine the thyroid volumes by ultrasonography in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years living in Cagayan areas in Philippine. Cross-sectional thyroid ultrasonographic data of 158 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from Tuguegarao and Lagum in Cagayan valley, Philippine were used. Thyroid volumes were compared based on logistic issue and urban and rural area and compared with other previously reported data. The mean values of thyroid volume in Tuguerago and Lagum were 2.99 ± 1.34 mL and 2.42 ± 0.92 mL. The thyroid size was significantly in association with age (P < 0.00), weight (P < 0.00), height (P < 0.00), and BSA (P < 0.00) by Pearson's correlation. The median thyroid volumes of schoolchildren investigated in this study were generally low compared to international reference data by age group but not by BSA. We propose for the first time local reference ultrasound values for thyroid volumes in 6-12 aged schoolchildren that should be used for monitoring iodine deficiency disorders.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2012; 2012:387971. · 2.52 Impact Factor