First episode of acute CNS inflammatory demyelination in childhood: Prognostic factors for multiple sclerosis and disability
ABSTRACT To evaluate prognostic factors for second attack and for disability in children presenting with an initial episode of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination.
A cohort of 296 children having a first episode of acute CNS inflammatory demyelination was studied by survival analysis.
The average follow-up was 2.9+/-3 years. At the end of the follow-up, 57% of patients had a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), 29% had a monophasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and 14% had a single focal episode. The rate of a second attack was (1). higher in patients with age at onset >or=10 years (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.04-2.67), MS-suggestive initial MRI (1.54; 1.02-2.33), or optic nerve lesion (2.59; 1.27-5.29); and (2). lower in patients with myelitis (0.23; 0.10-0.56) or mental status change (0.59; 0.33-1.07). Of patients with a second attack, 29% had an initial diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. At the end of the follow-up period, 90% of patients had no or minor disability. Occurrence of severe disability was associated with a polysymptomatic onset (3.25; 1.16-11.01), sequelae after the first attack (26.65; 9.42-75.35), further relapses (1.49; 1.16-1.92), and progressive MS (3.57; 1.21-8.72).
Risk of second attack of CNS demyelination is higher in older patients and lower in patients with mental status change. Risk of disability is higher in polysymptomatic and relapsing patients.
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric MS tends to present more often with an acute onset and a polysymptomatic form of the disease, possibly with encephalopathy and large tumefactive lesions similar to those observed in some cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), which makes it more difficult to differentiate between an explosive and severe onset of MS vs. ADEM. An ADEM-like first demyelinating event can be the first attack of pediatric MS, but international consensus definitions require two or more non-ADEM demyelinating events for diagnosis of MS. In our patient KIDMUS MRI criteria for MS (Mikaeloff et al. J Pediatr 144:246-252, 2004a; Mikaeloff et al. Brain 127:1942-1947, 2004b) were negative at first attack, but Barkhof criteria for lesion dissemination in space in adults (Barkhof et al. 120:2059-2069, 1997), Callen modified MS-criteria and Callen MS-ADEM criteria for children (Callen et al. Neurology 72:961-967, 2009a; Callen et al. Neurology 72:968-973, 2009b) were positive suggesting pediatric MS. As the clinical course was devastating with non-responsiveness upon high-dose immune modulatory therapy and due to the absence of an alternative diagnosis other than demyelinating disease brain biopsy was performed. Brain biopsy studies or autopsy case reports of fulminant pediatric MS patients are extremely rare. Histopathology revealed an inflammatory demyelinating CNS process with confluent demyelination, indicating the likelihood of a relapsing disease course compatible with an acute to subacute demyelinating inflammatory disease. This pattern was corresponding to the early active multiple sclerosis subtype I of Lucchinetti et al. (Ann Neurol 47(6):707-717, 2000).Journal of Neural Transmission 03/2011; 118(9):1311-7. DOI:10.1007/s00702-011-0609-6
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ABSTRACT: Public concern about possible increases in the risk of multiple sclerosis associated with hepatitis B vaccination has led to low vaccination coverage. We investigated whether this vaccination after a first episode of acute CNS inflammatory demyelination in childhood increased the risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis. We studied the French Kid Sclérose en Plaques (KIDSEP) neuropaediatric cohort of patients enrolled between 1994 and 2003 from their first episode of acute CNS inflammatory demyelination (inclusion in the cohort) until the occurrence of a second episode, up to 2005. A Cox proportional hazards model of time-dependent vaccine exposure was used to evaluate the effect of vaccination (hepatitis B, tetanus) during follow-up on the risk of second episode occurrence (conversion to multiple sclerosis). The cohort included 356 subjects with a mean follow-up of 5.8 years (SD 2.7). Relapse occurred in 146 (41%) subjects during follow-up; 33 subjects were exposed to hepatitis B vaccine and 28 to tetanus vaccine at some time during follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for relapse occurring within 3 years of hepatitis B vaccination was 0.78 (0.32-1.89) and during any time period was 1.09 (0.53-2.24). The adjusted HR for relapse occurring within 3 years of tetanus vaccination was 0.99 (0.58-1.67) and during any time period was 1.08 (0.63-1.83). We conclude that vaccination against hepatitis B or tetanus after a first episode of CNS inflammatory demyelination in childhood does not appear to increase the risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis, although the possibility of a small increase in risk cannot be excluded.Brain 05/2007; 130(Pt 4):1105-10. DOI:10.1093/brain/awl368
Article: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the CNS characterized by a widespread demyelination that predominantly involves the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The condition is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination. The presenting features include an acute encephalopathy with multifocal neurologic signs and deficits. Children are preferentially affected. In the absence of specific biologic markers, the diagnosis of ADEM is still based on the clinical and radiologic features. Although ADEM usually has a monophasic course, recurrent or multiphasic forms have been reported, raising diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing these cases from multiple sclerosis (MS). The International Pediatric MS Study Group proposes uniform definitions for ADEM and its variants. We discuss some of the difficulties in the interpretation of available literature due to the different terms and definitions used. In addition, this review summarizes current knowledge of the main aspects of ADEM, including its clinical and radiologic diagnostic features, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and outcome. An overview of ADEM treatment in children is provided. Finally, the controversies surrounding pediatric MS and ADEM are addressed.Neurology 05/2007; 68(16 Suppl 2):S23-36. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000259404.51352.7f