The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor ZD1839 (Iressa) Suppresses c-Src and Pak1 Pathways and Invasiveness of Human Cancer Cells

Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.72). 02/2004; 10(2):658-67. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-0382-03
Source: PubMed


Abnormalities in the expression and signaling pathways downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contribute to the progression, invasion, and maintenance of the malignant phenotype in human cancers, including those of the head and neck and breast. Accordingly, agents such as the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) ZD1839 (Iressa) are promising, biologically based treatments that are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. The process of tumor progression requires, among other steps, increased transformation, directional migration, and enhanced cell survival; this study explored the effect of ZD1839 on the stimulation of c-Src and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), which are vital for transformation, directional motility, and cell survival of cancer cells.
We examined the effect of ZD1839 on biochemical and functional assays indicative of directional motility and cell survival, using human head and neck squamous cancer cells and breast cancer cells.
ZD1839 effectively inhibited c-Src activation and Pak1 activity in exponentially growing cancer cells. In addition, ZD1839 suppressed EGF-induced stimulation of EGFR autophosphorylation on Y1086 and Grb2-binding Y1068 sites, c-Src phosphorylation on Y215, and Pak1 activity. ZD1839 also blocked EGF-induced cytoskeleton remodeling, redistribution of activated EGFR, and in vitro invasiveness of cancer cells.
These studies suggest that the EGFR-TKI ZD1839 may cause potent inhibition of the Pak1 and c-Src pathways and, therefore, have potential to affect the invasiveness of human cancer cells deregulated in these growth factor receptor pathways.

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    • "Previously it was demonstrated that ADAM17 contributes to tumour cell migration and invasion in vitro [34] and EGFR inhibition with gefitinib can decrease cancer cell metastasis in vivo [36]. We therefore examined whether treatment with inhibitory antibody D1 (A12) could affect cell motility in the presence or absence of gefitinib in an in vitro wound closure assay. "
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    ABSTRACT: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) regulates key cellular processes including proliferation and migration through the shedding of a diverse array of substrates such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands. ADAM17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cancers such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). As a central mediator of cellular events, overexpressed EGFR is a validated molecular target in HNSCC. However, EGFR inhibition constantly leads to tumour resistance. One possible mechanism of resistance is the activation of alternative EGFR family receptors and downstream pathways via the release of their ligands. Here, we report that treating human HNSCC cells in vitro with a human anti-ADAM17 inhibitory antibody, D1(A12), suppresses proliferation and motility in the absence or presence of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib. Treatment with D1(A12) decreases both the endogenous and the bradykinin (BK)-stimulated shedding of HER ligands, accompanied by a reduction in the phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling pathways including STAT3, AKT and ERK. Knockdown of ADAM17, but not ADAM10, also suppresses HNSCC cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we show that heregulin (HRG) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF) predominantly participate in proliferation and migration, respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1(A12)-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling is achieved via reduced shedding of ADAM17 ligands. These findings underscore the importance of ADAM17 and suggest that D1(A12) might be an effective targeted agent for treating EGFR TKI-resistant HNSCC.
    International journal of biological sciences 06/2014; 10(7):702-14. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.9326 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    • "Our screening using the unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis suggests that PAK1 is a leading candidate among all reported possible target candidates. PAK1 is integrally tied to the HER-2 and EGFR networks, although it is unknown if PAK1 is directly regulated by HER-2 or EGFR [19], [56]. Consistently, our clustering results suggest that PAK1 is closely related with components of the HER-2 and EGFR networks. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with rising incidence, yet the molecular biomarkers that have strong prognostic impact and also hold great therapeutic promise remain elusive. We used a data mining approach and identified the p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), an oncogene and drugable protein kinase, to be among the most promising targets for GEJ adenocarcinoma. Immunoblot analysis and data mining demonstrated that PAK1 protein and mRNA were upregulated in cancer tissues compared to the noncancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed PAK1 overexpression in 72.6% of primary GEJ adenocarcinomas (n = 113). A step-wise increase in PAK1 levels was noted from paired normal epithelium, to atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. PAK1 overexpression in tumor was associated with lymph node (LN) metastasis (P<0.001), advanced tumor stage (P<0.001), large tumor size (P = 0.006), residual surgical margin (P = 0.033), and unfavorable overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed PAK1 overexpression is an independent high-risk prognostic predictor (P<0.001). Collectively, PAK1 is overexpressed during tumorigenic progression and its upregulation correlates with malignant properties mainly relevant to invasion and metastasis. PAK1 expression could serve as a prognostic predictor that holds therapeutic promise for GEJ adenocarcinoma.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80665. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080665 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies have revealed that SKI-606 inhibits cell proliferation and blocks cell cycle progression, invasion and migration of several invasive human cancers including breast, colon and nonsmall lung cancer cells [23–25]. In parallel, numerous investigations found that Iressa decreases cell invasion and tumor formation of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo [31–35]. In this paper, we report that Src/Abl and, to a lesser extent, EGF-R inhibitor decrease cell proliferation of two human cervical cancer cell lines, which is accompanied by a deregulation of cell cycle progression, particularly G0-G1 cell cycle. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared the effects of SKI-606 with Iressa, Src/Abl and EGF-R kinase inhibitors, respectively, on selected parameters in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines, which express E6/E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV types 18 and 16, respectively. Our results show that SKI-606 and Iressa inhibit cell proliferation and provoke G(0)-G(1) cell cycle arrest and reduction of S and G(2)-M phase using 2 and 5 μM concentrations of these inhibitors. In contrast, SKI-606 induces differentiation to an epithelial phenotype "mesenchymal-epithelial transition"; thus SKI-606 causes a dramatic decrease in cell motility and invasion abilities of HeLa and SiHa cancer cells, in comparison to untreated cells and Iressa-treated cells in which these parameters are only slightly affected. These changes are accompanied by a regulation of the expression patterns of E-cadherin and catenins. The molecular pathway analysis of Src/Abl inhibitor revealed that SKI-606 blocks the phosphorylation of β-catenin and consequently converts its role from a transcriptional regulator to a cell-cell adhesion molecule. Our findings indicate that SKI-606 inhibits signaling pathways involved in regulating tumor cell migration and invasion genes via β-catenin alteration, suggesting that Src inhibitor, in comparison to EGF-R, is a promising therapeutic agent for human cervical cancer.
    Journal of Oncology 08/2010; 2010. DOI:10.1155/2010/530130
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