Two-year performance of a Nestorone-releasing contraceptive implant: a three-center study of 300 women.
ABSTRACT A 2-year trial of a single Nestorone (NES) rod implant was conducted at three Latin American centers, each enrolling 100 women. We studied the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of this progestin-releasing contraceptive implant. Three pregnancies occurred, the last at 18 months of use. Because no pregnancies were expected in the first 18 months, the trial was halted. At that time, 224 women had completed at least 18 months of use, and 99 women had used the implant for more than 24 months. Few participants used adjunctive contraception between the time the study was halted and the time they had their implant removed. No additional pregnancies occurred before the removal of the last implant. The 2-year cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.7 per 100 with a Pearl index of 0.6 per 100 for the 2-year period. The 1-year and 2-year continuation rates were 80.5 and 66.7 per 100, respectively. Menstrual and medical disturbances were the principal reasons for discontinuation, followed by planned pregnancy. Headache and weight gain frequently led to discontinuation. The NES implant had little important effect on most clinical chemistry and lipid parameters. Over the study course, the mean change in hemoglobin was <1%. Slight modification of the design of this single 2-year implant, restoring features previously examined in clinical trials, is likely to improve its effectiveness. A single NES implant appears to provide acceptable contraception for women.
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ABSTRACT: The first hormonal contraceptive was introduced onto the market in several countries 50 years ago; however, the portfolio of contraceptive methods remains restricted with regards to their steroid composition, their cost, and their ability to satisfy the requirements of millions of women/couples in accordance with their different reproductive intentions, behaviors, cultures, and settings. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase, and Current Contents databases, up to September 1, 2013 to identify publications reporting new contraceptives in development using combinations of the search terms: contraception, contraceptives, oral contraceptives, patch, vaginal ring, implants, intrauterine contraceptives, and emergency contraception (EC). Also, several experts in the field were also consulted to document ongoing projects on contraception development. Additionally, the Clinicaltrial.gov website was searched for ongoing studies on existing contraceptive methods and new and emerging female contraceptives developed over the past 5 years. Information was also obtained from the pharmaceutical industry. Early sexual debut and late menopause means that women may require contraception for up to 30 years. Although oral, injectable, vaginal, transdermal, subdermal, and intrauterine contraceptives are already available, new contraceptives have been developed in an attempt to reduce side effects and avoid early discontinuation, and to fulfill women's different requirements. Research efforts are focused on replacing ethinyl-estradiol with natural estradiol to reduce thrombotic events. In addition, new, less androgenic progestins are being introduced and selective progesterone receptor modulators and new delivery systems are being used. In addition, research is being conducted into methods that offer dual protection (contraception and protection against human immunodeficiency virus transmission), and contraceptives for use "on demand." Studies are also investigating non-hormonal contraceptive methods that have additional, non-contraceptive benefits. The most pressing need worldwide is, first, that the highly effective contraceptive methods already available should be affordable to most of the population and also that these methods should fulfill the needs of women of different ages and with different reproductive requirements. The development of new contraceptive methods should also take advantage of the knowledge obtained over the past 30 years on gamete physiology and gamete interaction to avoid the use of steroid compounds.International Journal of Women's Health 01/2014; 6:221-234.
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ABSTRACT: Steady progress in contraception research has been achieved over the past 50 years. Hormonal and nonhormonal modern contraceptives have improved women's lives by reducing different health conditions that contributed to considerable morbidity. However, the contraceptives available today are not suitable to all users, and the need to expand contraceptive choices still exists. Novel products such as new implants, contraceptive vaginal rings, transdermal patches and newer combinations of oral contraceptives have recently been introduced in family planning programs, and hormonal contraception is widely used for spacing and limiting births. Concerns over the adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives have led to research and development of new combinations with improved metabolic profile. Recent developments include use of natural compounds such as estradiol and estradiol valerate with the hope to decrease thrombotic risk, in combination with newer progestins derived from the progesterone structure or from spirolactone, in order to avoid the androgenic effects. Progesterone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators are highly effective in blocking ovulation and preventing follicular rupture and are undergoing investigations in the form of oral pills and in semi-long-acting delivery systems. Future developments also include the combination of a contraceptive with an antiretroviral agent for dual contraception and protection against sexually transmitted diseases, to be used before intercourse or on demand, as well as for continuous use in dual-protection rings. Although clinical trials of male contraception have reflected promising results, limited involvement of industry in that area of research has decreased the likelihood of having a male method available in the current decade. Development of nonhormonal methods is still at an early stage of research, with the identification of specific targets within the reproductive system in ovaries and testes, as well as interactions between spermatozoa and ova. It is hoped that the introduction of new methods with additional health benefits would help women and couples with unmet needs to obtain access to a wider range of contraceptives with improved acceptability.Contraception 09/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor