A 2-year trial of a single Nestorone (NES) rod implant was conducted at three Latin American centers, each enrolling 100 women. We studied the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of this progestin-releasing contraceptive implant. Three pregnancies occurred, the last at 18 months of use. Because no pregnancies were expected in the first 18 months, the trial was halted. At that time, 224 women had completed at least 18 months of use, and 99 women had used the implant for more than 24 months. Few participants used adjunctive contraception between the time the study was halted and the time they had their implant removed. No additional pregnancies occurred before the removal of the last implant. The 2-year cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.7 per 100 with a Pearl index of 0.6 per 100 for the 2-year period. The 1-year and 2-year continuation rates were 80.5 and 66.7 per 100, respectively. Menstrual and medical disturbances were the principal reasons for discontinuation, followed by planned pregnancy. Headache and weight gain frequently led to discontinuation. The NES implant had little important effect on most clinical chemistry and lipid parameters. Over the study course, the mean change in hemoglobin was <1%. Slight modification of the design of this single 2-year implant, restoring features previously examined in clinical trials, is likely to improve its effectiveness. A single NES implant appears to provide acceptable contraception for women.
"A 2-year trial of a single NES rod was conducted, involving a total of 300 women at three Latin American clinics.93 Three unexpected pregnancies occurred at 18, 21, and 24 months of exposure and the trial was halted. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first hormonal contraceptive was introduced onto the market in several countries 50 years ago; however, the portfolio of contraceptive methods remains restricted with regards to their steroid composition, their cost, and their ability to satisfy the requirements of millions of women/couples in accordance with their different reproductive intentions, behaviors, cultures, and settings.
A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase, and Current Contents databases, up to September 1, 2013 to identify publications reporting new contraceptives in development using combinations of the search terms: contraception, contraceptives, oral contraceptives, patch, vaginal ring, implants, intrauterine contraceptives, and emergency contraception (EC). Also, several experts in the field were also consulted to document ongoing projects on contraception development. Additionally, the Clinicaltrial.gov website was searched for ongoing studies on existing contraceptive methods and new and emerging female contraceptives developed over the past 5 years. Information was also obtained from the pharmaceutical industry.
Early sexual debut and late menopause means that women may require contraception for up to 30 years. Although oral, injectable, vaginal, transdermal, subdermal, and intrauterine contraceptives are already available, new contraceptives have been developed in an attempt to reduce side effects and avoid early discontinuation, and to fulfill women's different requirements. Research efforts are focused on replacing ethinyl-estradiol with natural estradiol to reduce thrombotic events. In addition, new, less androgenic progestins are being introduced and selective progesterone receptor modulators and new delivery systems are being used. In addition, research is being conducted into methods that offer dual protection (contraception and protection against human immunodeficiency virus transmission), and contraceptives for use "on demand." Studies are also investigating non-hormonal contraceptive methods that have additional, non-contraceptive benefits.
The most pressing need worldwide is, first, that the highly effective contraceptive methods already available should be affordable to most of the population and also that these methods should fulfill the needs of women of different ages and with different reproductive requirements. The development of new contraceptive methods should also take advantage of the knowledge obtained over the past 30 years on gamete physiology and gamete interaction to avoid the use of steroid compounds.
International Journal of Women's Health 02/2014; 6(1):221-234. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S46811
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a multicenter 1-year trial of contraceptive vaginal rings (rings) involving 150 women, three dose combinations of the progestin Nestorone (NES) and ethinylestradiol (EE) were compared with respect to effectiveness, safety and acceptability. Mean in vitro drug release rates for the three doses were 150 and 15, 150 and 20 and 200 and 15 microg/day of NES and EE, respectively. Each ring remained in situ for 21 days, removed for 7 days and then reinserted for a total of 13 cycles of use. We studied ring performance with respect to pregnancy and other termination events, adverse events, the extent of ovulation inhibition, serum drug levels and bleeding control. We also assessed the rings' effects on the vagina using a standardized colposcopy procedure. Seventy-two percent of the women completed the 1-year (> or = 350 days) study. In studied cycles, luteal activity (progesterone > or = 10 nmol/L) was noted in 17%, 7% and 12% of subjects with monitored cycles at the 150/15, 150/20 and 200/15 doses, respectively (p = .34). Two pregnancies occurred, both in subjects using the 200/15 microg/day ring. Breakthrough bleeding during ring use averaged about 2 days/year and breakthrough bleeding and spotting averaged about 7 days/year. In the entire trial, only two women discontinued because of bleeding problems. Medical conditions, chiefly vaginal problems, personal reasons and device loss or repeated expulsion were the principal reasons given for study discontinuation. Vaginal and cervical colposcopy, conducted with standardized techniques and standardized interpretations, revealed no elevated event incidence attributable to ring use. Clinical performance and adverse event profiles indicate that each of these 1-year NES/EE rings, used on a 21-day-in and 7-day-out regimen, provided women effective, acceptable and safe long-acting contraception under their own control.
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