Two-year performance of a Nestorone-releasing contraceptive implant: a three-center study of 300 women.
ABSTRACT A 2-year trial of a single Nestorone (NES) rod implant was conducted at three Latin American centers, each enrolling 100 women. We studied the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of this progestin-releasing contraceptive implant. Three pregnancies occurred, the last at 18 months of use. Because no pregnancies were expected in the first 18 months, the trial was halted. At that time, 224 women had completed at least 18 months of use, and 99 women had used the implant for more than 24 months. Few participants used adjunctive contraception between the time the study was halted and the time they had their implant removed. No additional pregnancies occurred before the removal of the last implant. The 2-year cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.7 per 100 with a Pearl index of 0.6 per 100 for the 2-year period. The 1-year and 2-year continuation rates were 80.5 and 66.7 per 100, respectively. Menstrual and medical disturbances were the principal reasons for discontinuation, followed by planned pregnancy. Headache and weight gain frequently led to discontinuation. The NES implant had little important effect on most clinical chemistry and lipid parameters. Over the study course, the mean change in hemoglobin was <1%. Slight modification of the design of this single 2-year implant, restoring features previously examined in clinical trials, is likely to improve its effectiveness. A single NES implant appears to provide acceptable contraception for women.
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ABSTRACT: In a multicenter 1-year trial of contraceptive vaginal rings (rings) involving 150 women, three dose combinations of the progestin Nestorone (NES) and ethinylestradiol (EE) were compared with respect to effectiveness, safety and acceptability. Mean in vitro drug release rates for the three doses were 150 and 15, 150 and 20 and 200 and 15 microg/day of NES and EE, respectively. Each ring remained in situ for 21 days, removed for 7 days and then reinserted for a total of 13 cycles of use. We studied ring performance with respect to pregnancy and other termination events, adverse events, the extent of ovulation inhibition, serum drug levels and bleeding control. We also assessed the rings' effects on the vagina using a standardized colposcopy procedure. Seventy-two percent of the women completed the 1-year (> or = 350 days) study. In studied cycles, luteal activity (progesterone > or = 10 nmol/L) was noted in 17%, 7% and 12% of subjects with monitored cycles at the 150/15, 150/20 and 200/15 doses, respectively (p = .34). Two pregnancies occurred, both in subjects using the 200/15 microg/day ring. Breakthrough bleeding during ring use averaged about 2 days/year and breakthrough bleeding and spotting averaged about 7 days/year. In the entire trial, only two women discontinued because of bleeding problems. Medical conditions, chiefly vaginal problems, personal reasons and device loss or repeated expulsion were the principal reasons given for study discontinuation. Vaginal and cervical colposcopy, conducted with standardized techniques and standardized interpretations, revealed no elevated event incidence attributable to ring use. Clinical performance and adverse event profiles indicate that each of these 1-year NES/EE rings, used on a 21-day-in and 7-day-out regimen, provided women effective, acceptable and safe long-acting contraception under their own control.Contraception 03/2005; 71(2):122-9. DOI:10.1016/j.contraception.2004.08.010
Article: Role of progestins in contraception[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Progestins have been used for contraception for more than 30 years. The main goal was to develop a contraceptive method devoid of the metabolic or clinical side-effects associated with the use of estrogens. The development of new contraceptive methods and formulations is time-consuming and requires devotion, belief, and also strong economical basis. As a result of this endeavor new methods have been developed: oral progestins, implants, injectables, intrauterine hormonal systems, and vaginal rings. Progestin-only contraceptives may be preferable in some situations, which have absolute or relative contraindications to estrogen, side-effects to estrogen containing hormonal contraception, lactation, and comfort and feasibility of formulations for long-term use. At present, emergency contraception is also performed with progestin.Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 04/2005; 84(3):207-16. DOI:10.1111/j.0001-6349.2005.00759.x