[Morphological study of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)].
ABSTRACT Seven cases of autopsy from SARS patients are studied to investigate the pathogenesis and the pathologic changes of the major organs.
Detailed gross and microscopic examination of the autopsy specimen is performed, including lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes.
All of the lungs are markedly enlarged and consolidated. Microscopically, pulmonary edema is a prominent finding, especially at the early stage of the disease (5 days after the onset). The alveolar spaces are filled with fibrinous exudates and lined with hyaline membrane. In 5 cases that undergo over 3 weeks of the course, the main pattern is organization of intra-alveolar deposit, along with fibroblastic proliferation in the alveolar septa, which leads to obliteration of alveolar space and pulmonary fibrosis. All of the lungs show bronchopneumonia, scattered hemorrhage, and proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells with desquamation. Microthrombi are seen in 6 cases. Fungal infection is noted in 2 cases. One of them is disseminative, involving bilateral lungs, heart, and kidney; the other one is diagnosed in hilar lymph nodes. In immune system, hilar and abdominal lymph nodes are usually congested and hemorrhagic, with depletion of lymphocytes, and accompanied with subcapsular sinus histiocytosis. One of the cases shows enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes, which have reduced number of germinal centers. Spleen exhibits atrophy of white pulps, and even lost of white pulps in some areas. The red pulp is markedly congested and hemorrhagic. In 5 cases, cardiomegale is prominent. Thrombosis (2 cases), focal myocarditis (1 case), and fungal myocarditis (1 case) are observed. In addition, liver shows massive necrosis (1 case) and nodular cirrhosis (1 case).
Lung is the major organ affected by SARS, demonstrated as diffuse alveolar damage. It is postulated that viral infection induces severe damage of alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial cells, leads to pulmonary edema, intra-alveolar fibrin deposit, and hyaline membrane formation. Consequently, intra-alveolar organization and alveolar septal fibrosis causes loss of alveolar spaces, eventually, pulmonary fibrosis and atelectasis. The immune system is often affected, and presented as depletion of lymphoid tissue in lymph nodes and spleen. Secondary infection is a common complication, which should be paid close attention in the management of SARS patients.
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ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 as an important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans, and in vitro models of the lung are needed to elucidate cellular targets and the consequences of viral infection. The SARS-CoV receptor, human angiotensin 1-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), was detected in ciliated airway epithelial cells of human airway tissues derived from nasal or tracheobronchial regions, suggesting that SARS-CoV may infect the proximal airways. To assess infectivity in an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelia (HAE) derived from nasal and tracheobronchial airway regions, we generated recombinant SARS-CoV by deletion of open reading frame 7a/7b (ORF7a/7b) and insertion of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), resulting in SARS-CoV GFP. SARS-CoV GFP replicated to titers similar to those of wild-type viruses in cell lines. SARS-CoV specifically infected HAE via the apical surface and replicated to titers of 10(7) PFU/ml by 48 h postinfection. Polyclonal antisera directed against hACE2 blocked virus infection and replication, suggesting that hACE2 is the primary receptor for SARS-CoV infection of HAE. SARS-CoV structural proteins and virions localized to ciliated epithelial cells. Infection was highly cytolytic, as infected ciliated cells were necrotic and shed over time onto the luminal surface of the epithelium. SARS-CoV GFP also replicated to a lesser extent in ciliated cell cultures derived from hamster or rhesus monkey airways. Efficient SARS-CoV infection of ciliated cells in HAE provides a useful in vitro model of human lung origin to study characteristics of SARS-CoV replication and pathogenesis.Journal of Virology 01/2006; 79(24):15511-24. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has been known to damage multiple organs; however, little is known about its impact on the reproductive system. In the present study, we analyzed the pathological changes of testes from six patients who died of SARS. Results suggested that SARS caused orchitis. All SARS testes displayed widespread germ cell destruction, few or no spermatozoon in the seminiferous tubule, thickened basement membrane, and leukocyte infiltration. The numbers of CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages increased significantly in the interstitial tissue compared with the control group (P < 0.05). SARS viral genomic sequences were not detected in the testes by in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated abundant IgG precipitation in the seminiferous epithelium of SARS testes, indicating possible immune response as the cause for the damage. Our findings indicated that orchitis is a complication of SARS. It further suggests that the reproductive functions should be followed and evaluated in recovered male SARS patients.Biology of Reproduction 02/2006; 74(2):410-6. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 as an important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans and in vitro models of the lung are needed to elucidate cellular targets and the consequences of viral infection. The severe and sudden onset of symptoms, resulting in an atypical pneumonia with dry cough and persistent high fever in cases of severe acute respiratory virus brought to light the importance of coronaviruses as potentially lethal human pathogens and the identification of several zoonotic reservoirs has made the reemergence of new strains and future epidemics all the more possible. In this chapter, we describe the pathology of SARS-CoV infection in humans and explore the use of two models of the human conducting airway to develop a better understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV in relevant in vitro systems. The first culture model is a human bronchial epithelial cell line Calu-3 that can be inoculated by viruses either as a non-polarized monolayer of cells or polarized cells with tight junctions and microvilli. The second model system, derived from primary cells isolated from human airway epithelium and grown on Transwells, form a pseudostratified mucociliary epithelium that recapitulates the morphological and physiological features of the human conducting airway in vivo. Experimental results using these lung epithelial cell models demonstrate that in contrast to the pathology reported in late stage cases SARS-CoV replicates to high titers in epithelial cells of the conducting airway. The SARS-CoV receptor, human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), was detected exclusively on the apical surface of cells in polarized Calu-3 cells and human airway epithelial cultures (HAE), indicating that hACE2 was accessible by SARS-CoV after lumenal airway delivery. Furthermore, in HAE, hACE2 was exclusively localized to ciliated airway epithelial cells. In support of the hACE2 localization data, the most productive route of inoculation and progeny virion egress in both polarized Calu-3 and ciliated cells of HAE was the apical surface suggesting mechanisms to release large quantities of virus into the lumen of the human lung. Preincubation of the apical surface of cultures with antisera directed against hACE2 reduced viral titers by two logs while antisera against DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR did not reduce viral replication levels suggesting that hACE2 is the primary receptor for entry of SARS-CoV into the ciliated cells of HAE cultures. To assess infectivity in ciliated airway cultures derived from susceptible animal species we generated a recombinant SARS-CoV by deletion of open reading frame 7a/7b (ORF 7a/7b) and insertion of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) resulting in SARS-CoV GFP. SARS-CoV GFP replicated to similar titers as wild type viruses in Vero E6, MA104, and CaCo2 cells. In addition, SARS-CoV replication in airway epithelial cultures generated from Golden Syrian hamster tracheas reached similar titers to the human cultures by 72 h post-infection. Efficient SARS-CoV infection of ciliated cell-types in HAE provides a useful in vitro model of human lung origin to study characteristics of SARS-CoV replication and pathogenesis.Virus Research 05/2008; 133(1):33-44. · 2.75 Impact Factor