[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of folic acid-induced acute renal failure on the renal excretion of belotecan were investigated in rats after intravenous administration. Both glomeruli and renal tubules were seriously damaged by folic acid-induced acute renal failure. The renal excretion clearance, CLr, of belotecan was significantly decreased by folic acid-induced acute renal failure. Furthermore, glomerular filtration rate and secretion clearance of the drug were dramatically decreased by folic acid-induced acute renal failure. In vivo renal uptake of belotecan was inhibited by p-aminohippurate, whereas renal excretion was inhibited by GF120918, but not by verapamil and bromosulphalein. This indicates that Oat1/3 and Bcrp are involved in the renal uptake and urinary excretion of belotecan, respectively. Both mRNA and protein levels of Oat1, Oat3 and Bcrp were significantly decreased in folic acid-induced acute renal failure rats. Based on the finding that belotecan is a substrate of OAT1 but not of OAT3, the decrease in CLr of belotecan in folic acid-induced acute renal failure could, therefore, mainly be attributed to the down-regulation of Oat1 and Bcrp, in addition to the decrease in glomerular filtration rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In evaluating toxicity, one of the most important factors is the administration method, because it can affect the exposure and absorbance level of the test article, and, consequently, influence the interpretation of toxicity test results. Continuous intravenous (IV) administration is a widely used administration method for anti-cancer drugs in clinical settings. Previous studies have reported the toxic effects of the test article following repeated IV dosing of CKD-602, a novel camptothecin-derivative anti-tumor agent that was developed by Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Corporation in Seoul, Korea. However, CKD-602-related toxicities induced by IV infusion administration have not yet been evaluated, although the drug is more widely used in clinical settings. In the present study, CKD-602 was administered using a continuous IV infusion pump and using repeated IV administration at doses of 0, 0.003, or 0.01 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks to compare and evaluate the drug-induced toxicities using the two different administration methods. Higher mortality, more severe clinical symptoms, increased complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and histopathology were demonstrated when CKD-602 was administered using the 4-week continuous IV infusion pump method compared with the repeated IV administration method. Based on these results, we conclude that the administration of CKD-602 using the 4-week continuous IV infusion pump method can elicit more severe toxicity than that using 4-week repeated IV dosing method. Thus, more attention should be paid to the administration of CKD-602 using continuous IV infusion in the clinical setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The subacute toxicity of a new camptothecin anticancer agent, CKD-602, was investigated after 4-week repeated intravenous administration of the chemical in Sprague–Dawley rats. The test chemical was administered intravenously to rats at dose levels of 0, 0.003, 0.013, or 0.067 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 0.004, 0.018, or 0.089 mg/kg/day for females. At the end of the treatment period, 10 rats/sex/group were sacrificed. The remaining 5 rats/sex in the vehicle control and high dose groups continued the study without treatment for 2 weeks (recovery period). During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, and histopathology were examined. In both sexes of the high dose group, an increase in the incidence of abnormal clinical signs and paleness of the eyes, a reduction in the body weight gain, food consumption and urine protein, and an increase in the water consumption were observed. Hematological investigations revealed a decrease in the red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit and an increase in the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, platelets, and reticulocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol and total protein values were lower in females than those of controls, but not in males. An increase in the heart and liver weights and a decrease in the thymus weight were also found. Histopathological alterations included an increase in the incidence of atrophy of the sternal marrow, atrophy, fibrosis and mast cell hyperplasia of the femoral marrow, atrophy of the white pulp and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen, atrophy of the thymus, auricular hypertrophy of the heart, extramedullary hematopoiesis and centriacinar telangiectasis of the liver, follicular degeneration of the ovary, and inflammation of the tail. The major treatment-related effects were not recovered at the end of 2-week recovery period. There were no adverse effects in the low and middle dose groups of both genders. In the present experimental conditions, the target organs were determined to be bone marrow, blood cells, spleen, liver, thymus, and heart. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 0.013 mg/kg/day for males and 0.018 mg/kg/day for females.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 01/2005; DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2004.09.002 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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