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The subacute toxicity of a new camptothecin anticancer agent, CKD-602, was investigated after 4-week repeated intravenous administration of the chemical in Sprague–Dawley rats. The test chemical was administered intravenously to rats at dose levels of 0, 0.003, 0.013, or 0.067 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 0.004, 0.018, or 0.089 mg/kg/day for females. At the end of the treatment period, 10 rats/sex/group were sacrificed. The remaining 5 rats/sex in the vehicle control and high dose groups continued the study without treatment for 2 weeks (recovery period). During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, and histopathology were examined. In both sexes of the high dose group, an increase in the incidence of abnormal clinical signs and paleness of the eyes, a reduction in the body weight gain, food consumption and urine protein, and an increase in the water consumption were observed. Hematological investigations revealed a decrease in the red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit and an increase in the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, platelets, and reticulocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol and total protein values were lower in females than those of controls, but not in males. An increase in the heart and liver weights and a decrease in the thymus weight were also found. Histopathological alterations included an increase in the incidence of atrophy of the sternal marrow, atrophy, fibrosis and mast cell hyperplasia of the femoral marrow, atrophy of the white pulp and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen, atrophy of the thymus, auricular hypertrophy of the heart, extramedullary hematopoiesis and centriacinar telangiectasis of the liver, follicular degeneration of the ovary, and inflammation of the tail. The major treatment-related effects were not recovered at the end of 2-week recovery period. There were no adverse effects in the low and middle dose groups of both genders. In the present experimental conditions, the target organs were determined to be bone marrow, blood cells, spleen, liver, thymus, and heart. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 0.013 mg/kg/day for males and 0.018 mg/kg/day for females.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 01/2005; DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2004.09.002 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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S-CKD602 is a PEGylated liposomal formulation of CKD-602, a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor. The objective of this study was to characterize the bidirectional pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) interaction between S-CKD602 and monocytes. Plasma concentrations of encapsulated CKD-602 and monocytes counts from 45 patients with solid tumors were collected following intravenous administration of S-CKD602 in the phase I study. The PK-PD models were developed and fit simultaneously to the PK-PD data, using NONMEM(®). The monocytopenia after administration of S-CKD602 was described by direct toxicity to monocytes in a mechanism-based model, and by direct toxicity to progenitor cells in bone marrow in a myelosuppression-based model. The nonlinear PK disposition of S-CKD602 was described by linear degradation and irreversible binding to monocytes in the mechanism-based model, and Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the myelosuppression-based model. The mechanism-based PK-PD model characterized the nonlinear PK disposition, and the bidirectional PK-PD interaction between S-CKD602 and monocytes.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 10/2012; 7:5555-64. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S35751 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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