Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension: a report of the multicenter liver transplant database.
ABSTRACT Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PortoPH) are pulmonary vascular consequences of advanced liver disease associated with significant mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Data from 10 liver transplant centers were collected from 1996 to 2001 that characterized the outcome of patients with either HPS (n = 40) or PortoPH (n = 66) referred for OLT. Key variables (PaO2 for HPS, mean pulmonary artery pressure [MPAP], pulmonary vascular resistance [PVR], and cardiac output [CO] for PortoPH) were analyzed with respect to 3 definitive outcomes (those denied OLT, transplant hospitalization survivors, and transplant hospitalization nonsurvivors). OLT was denied in 8 of 40 patients (20%) with HPS and 30 of 66 patients (45%) with PortoPH. Patients with HPS who were denied OLT had significantly worse PaO2 compared with patients who underwent transplantation (47 vs. 52 mm Hg, P <.005). Transplant hospitalization survival was associated with higher pre-OLT PaO2 (55 vs. 37 mm Hg; P <.005). MPAP was significantly higher (53 vs. 45 mm Hg; P <.015) and PVR was significantly worse (614 vs. 335 dynes. s. cm(-5); P <.05) in patients with PortoPH who were denied OLT compared with patients who underwent transplantation. Transplant hospitalization mortality was 16% (5/32) in patients with HPS and 36% (13/36) in patients with PortoPH. All of the deaths in patients with PortoPH occurred within 18 days of OLT; 5 of the 13 deaths in patients with PortoPH occurred intraoperatively. We concluded that patients with HPS (based on a combination of low PaO2 and nonpulmonary factors) and patients with PortoPH (based on pulmonary hemodynamics) were frequently denied OLT because of pre-OLT test results and comorbidities. For patients who subsequently underwent OLT, transplant hospitalization mortality remained significant for both those with HPS (16%) and PortoPH (36%).
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ABSTRACT: Portopulmonary hypertension is an uncommon but treatable pulmonary vascular consequence of portal hypertension, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Portopulmonary hypertension results from excessive pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling that eventually leads to right-heart failure and death if left untreated. Although pulmonary vascular disease in these patients may be asymptomatic or associated with subtle and nonspecific symptoms (dyspnea, fatigue and lower extremity swelling), it should be looked for especially if patients are potential candidates for liver transplantation. Patients with clinical suspicion of portopulmonary hypertension should undergo screening testing, specifically echocardiography. Right heart catheterization remains the gold standard for the diagnosis. The existence of moderate to severe disease poses higher risks and challenges for liver transplantation. The disease has a substantial impact on survival and requires focused pharmacological therapy. New and evolving medical therapies, such as prostanoids (intravenous, inhaled or oral), endothelin receptors antagonists, phosphodiesterases inhibitors, combination therapy and other experimental drugs might change the natural course of the disease. Case reports and cases series have been published regarding the efficacy and safety of pharmacological therapy, but randomized, controlled multicenter trials are urgently needed. Liver transplantation is not the treatment of choice for portopulmonary hypertension, but after optimal hemodynamic and clinical improvement with medical therapy as a bridge, liver transplant can be considered an option in selected patients.Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology 7(4):321-30. · 1.81 Impact Factor
Article: Safety and efficacy of combined use of sildenafil, bosentan, and iloprost before and after liver transplantation in severe portopulmonary hypertension.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) represents a constrictive pulmonary vasculopathy in patients with portal hypertension. Liver transplantation (LT) may be curative and is usually restricted to patients with mild-to-moderate disease severity characterized by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP < 35 mm Hg). Patients with severe disease (mPAP > 50 mm Hg) are usually excluded from transplantation. We describe a patient with severe PPHTN, initiated on sequential and ultimately combination therapy of prostacyclin, sildenafil, and bosentan (PSB) pretransplantation and continued for 2 years posttransplantation. Peak mPAP on PSB therapy was dramatically reduced from 70 mm Hg to 32 mm Hg pretransplantation, and continued therapy facilitated a further fall in mPAP to 28 mm Hg posttransplantation. The pulmonary vascular resistance index fell from 604 to 291 dyne second(-1) cm(-5). The perioperative mPAP rose to 100 mm Hg following an episode of sepsis and fell with optimization of PSB therapy. In conclusion, this is the first reported patient with severe PPHTN using this combination of vasodilator therapy as a bridge to LT and then as maintenance in the posttransplantation phase. This regimen may enable LT in similar patients in the future, without long-term consequences.Liver Transplantation 04/2008; 14(3):287-91. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation offers patients with liver disease an optimal chance for long-term survival. Current indications, preoperative assessment, patient selection, intraoperative anesthetic management and outcomes are described. The management of special situations, including retransplantation, pediatric transplantation, and fulminant hepatic failure are also reviewed. The success of liver transplantation has led to increased demand. This demand, coupled with a nonexpanding supply of deceased donor organs, has resulted in a shortage of grafts and prolonged waiting times. Novel solutions using segmental liver grafts from living donors, and the challenges associated with this approach, are discussed.Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 01/2005; 22(4):687-711.