Improved clinical outcome using polytetrafluoroethylene-coated stents for TIPS: Results of a randomized study
ABSTRACT A 50% dysfunction rate at 1 year is one of the main drawbacks of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. Preliminary experimental and clinical studies suggest that the use of stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene could tremendously decrease this risk.
Eighty patients with cirrhosis and uncontrolled bleeding (n = 23), recurrent bleeding (n = 25), or refractory ascites (n = 32) were randomized to be treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts with either a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent (group 1; 39 patients) or a usual uncovered prosthesis (group 2; 41 patients). Follow-up Doppler ultrasound was scheduled at day 7, at 1 month, and then every 3 months for 2 years. Angiography and portosystemic pressure gradient measurements were performed 6, 12, and 24 months after the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure and whenever dysfunction was suspected. Dysfunction was defined as a >50% reduction of the lumen of the shunt at angiography or a portosystemic pressure gradient >12 mm Hg.
After a median follow-up of 300 days, 5 patients (13%) in group 1 and 18 (44%) in group 2 experienced shunt dysfunction (P < 0.001). Clinical relapse occurred in 3 patients (8%) in group 1 and 12 (29%) in group 2 (P < 0.05). Actuarial rates of encephalopathy were 21% in group 1 and 41% in group 2 at 1 year (not significant). Estimated probabilities of survival were 71% and 60% at 1 year and 65% and 41% at 2 years in groups 1 and 2, respectively (not significant).
The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered prostheses improves transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt patency and decreases the number of clinical relapses and reinterventions without increasing the risk of encephalopathy.
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ABSTRACT: Portal hypertension (PH) plays an important role in the natural history of cirrhosis, and is associated with several clinical consequences. The introduction of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in the 1980s has been regarded as a major technical advance in the management of the PH-related complications. At present, polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents are the preferred option over traditional bare metal stents. TIPS is currently indicated as a salvage therapy in patients with bleeding esophageal varices who fail standard treatment. Recently, applying TIPS early (within 72 h after admission) has been shown to be an effective and life-saving treatment in those with high-risk variceal bleeding. In addition, TIPS is recommended as the second-line treatment for secondary prophylaxis. For bleeding gastric varices, applying TIPS was able to achieve hemostasis in more than 90% of patients. More trials are needed to clarify the efficacy of TIPS compared with other treatment modalities, including cyanoacrylate injection and balloon retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices. TIPS should also be considered in bleeding ectopic varices and refractory portal hypertensive gastropathy. In patients with refractory ascites, there is growing evidence that TIPS not only results in better control of ascites, but also improves long-term survival in appropriately selected candidates. In addition, TIPS is a promising treatment for refractory hepatic hydrothorax. However, the role of TIPS in the treatment of hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndrome is not well defined. The advantage of TIPS is offset by a risk of developing hepatic encephalopathy, the most relevant post-procedural complication. Emerging data are addressing the determination the optimal time and patient selection for TIPS placement aiming at improving long-term treatment outcome. This review is aimed at summarizing the published data regarding the application of TIPS in the management of complications related to PH.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2014; 20(45):16996-17010. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.16996 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article was to clarify the optimal management concerning transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs) and surgical shunting in treating portal hypertension. All databases, including CBM, CNKI, WFPD, Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane up to February 2014, were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TIPS with surgical shunting. Four RCTs, which were extracted by two independent investigators and were evaluated in postoperative complications, mortality, 2- and 5-year survival, hospital stay, operating time and hospitalization charges. The morbidity in variceal rehemorrhage was significantly higher in TIPS than in surgical shunts (odds ratio [OR] = 7.45, 95% confidence interval[CI]: (3.93-14.15), P < 0.00001), the same outcomes were seen in shunt stenosis (OR = 20.01, 95% CI: (6.67-59.99), P < 0.000001) and in hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: (1.63-3.84), P < 0.0001). Significantly better 2-year survival (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: (0.44-0.98), P = 0.04) and 5-year survival (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: (0.30-0.66), P < 0.00001) were seen in patients undergoing surgical shunting compared with TIPS. Compared with TIPS, postoperative complications and survival after surgical shunting were superior for patients with portal hypertension. Application of surgical shunting was recommended for patients rather than TIPS.
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ABSTRACT: The management of patients with gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension is often complex and challenging. The endoscopy plays an important role in the management of these patients. The role of endoscopy is both diagnostic and interventional and in the last years the techniques have undergone a rapid expansion with the advent of different and novel endoscopic modalities, with consequent improvement of investigation and treatment of these patients. The choice of best therapeutic strategy depends on many factors: baseline disease, patient's clinical performance and the timing when it is done if in emergency or a prophylactic approaches. In this review we evaluate the endoscopic management of patients with the gastrointestinal complications of portal hypertension.