A 50% dysfunction rate at 1 year is one of the main drawbacks of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. Preliminary experimental and clinical studies suggest that the use of stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene could tremendously decrease this risk.
Eighty patients with cirrhosis and uncontrolled bleeding (n = 23), recurrent bleeding (n = 25), or refractory ascites (n = 32) were randomized to be treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts with either a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent (group 1; 39 patients) or a usual uncovered prosthesis (group 2; 41 patients). Follow-up Doppler ultrasound was scheduled at day 7, at 1 month, and then every 3 months for 2 years. Angiography and portosystemic pressure gradient measurements were performed 6, 12, and 24 months after the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure and whenever dysfunction was suspected. Dysfunction was defined as a >50% reduction of the lumen of the shunt at angiography or a portosystemic pressure gradient >12 mm Hg.
After a median follow-up of 300 days, 5 patients (13%) in group 1 and 18 (44%) in group 2 experienced shunt dysfunction (P < 0.001). Clinical relapse occurred in 3 patients (8%) in group 1 and 12 (29%) in group 2 (P < 0.05). Actuarial rates of encephalopathy were 21% in group 1 and 41% in group 2 at 1 year (not significant). Estimated probabilities of survival were 71% and 60% at 1 year and 65% and 41% at 2 years in groups 1 and 2, respectively (not significant).
The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered prostheses improves transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt patency and decreases the number of clinical relapses and reinterventions without increasing the risk of encephalopathy.
"In contrast to the present study, previous studies have found that BRTO alone is associated with a therapeutic efficacy of 87%–100%, a recurrence rate or rate of variceal aggravation of 24.9%–58% [2, 18], and cumulative survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years of 100%, 100%, and 85%, respectively . Further, the recently reported statistics for TIPS are as follows: therapeutic efficacy, 50–63%; rate of recurrence or variceal aggravation, 61–69%; cumulative survival rates at 1, 2, and 4 years, 75%, 69%, and 60%, respectively . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO) alone and combined with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for gastroesophageal varices refractory to BRTO alone. Between July 1999 and December 2010, 13 patients with gastroesophageal varices refractory to BRTO were treated with PTO (n = 6) or a combination of PTO and BRTO (n = 7). We retrospectively investigated the rates of survival, recurrence, or worsening of the varices; hepatic function before and after the procedure; and complications. The procedure achieved complete obliteration or significant reduction of the varices in all 13 patients without major complications. During follow-up, the varices had recurred in 2 patients, of which one had hepatocellular carcinoma, and the other died suddenly from variceal rebleeding 7 years after PTO. The remaining 11 patients did not experience worsening of the varices and showed significant improvements in the serum ammonia levels and prothrombin time. The mean follow-up period was 90 months, and the cumulative survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 92.9%, 85.7%, and 85.7%, respectively. Both PTO and combined PTO and BRTO seem as safe and effective procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal varices refractory to BRTO alone.
The Scientific World Journal 12/2013; 2013:498535. DOI:10.1155/2013/498535 · 1.73 Impact Factor
"The major drawback of TIPS is the potential occurrence of shunt dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stent-grafts has overcome the problem of post-TIPS shunt insufficiency , and the 2009 update of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Practice Guidelines states that “the use of ePTFE-covered stents is now preferred” . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several models have been developed to predict survival in patients with cirrhosis undergoing TIPS; however, few of these models have gained widespread acceptance, especially in the era of covered stents. The aim of this study was to establish an evidence-based model for predicting survival after TIPS procedures.
A total of 210 patients with cirrhosis treated with TIPS were considered in the study. We comprehensively investigated factors associated with one-year survival and developed a new predictive model using the Cox regression model.
In the multivariate analysis, the Child-Pugh score and serum sodium levels were independent predictors of one-year survival. A new score incorporating serum sodium into the Child-Pugh score was developed: Child-Na score. We compared the predictive accuracy of Child-Na score with that of other scores; only the Child-Na and MELD-Na scores had adequate predictive ability in patients with serum Na levels <138 mmol/L. The best Child-Na cut-off score (15.5) differentiated two groups of patients with distinct prognoses (one-year cumulative survival rates of 80.6% and 45.5%); this finding was confirmed in a validation cohort (n = 86). In a subgroup analysis stratifying patients by indication for TIPS, the Child-Na score distinguished patients with different prognoses.
Patients with variceal bleeding and a Child-Na score ≤15 had a better prognosis than patients with a score ≥16. Patients with refractory ascites and a Child-Na score ≥16 had a high risk of death after the TIPS procedures; caution should be used when treating these patients with TIPS.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79637. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079637 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to 70% of the patients treated to prevent rebleeding will experience a bleeding episode within 2 years. The response should be adapted to the delay after the index bleed, the source and the severity of the haemorrhage, the underlying liver disease and the initial treatment to prevent rebleeding. Bleeding can be caused by endoscopic techniques themselves, which should incitate to complete obliteration rather than to switch to another therapy. Failure of drug therapy can be secondary to ineffectiveness, to a lack of compliance, or to an insufficient dosage. The two latter conditions may be corrected. Whenever a patient rebleeds in spite of optimal treatment, liver transplantation should be considered. When such a procedure is contra-indicated and in patients on the waiting list, a Transjugular intra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) should be performed.
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